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EUM 103 Multi Variables Lecture Notes

EUM 103 Multi Variables Lecture Notes

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Calculus of Multivariables
1
CALCULUS OF MULTIVARIABLESVector
 A vector can be represented by an arrow segment, in which the
 magnitude
of thevector is the length of the segment and the
 direction
of the vector is that of the arrow.The vector sum of two vectors
A
and
B
is represented graphically as shown in thefigure.
Algebraic definition of vector in two dimensional plane
In two dimensional plane, a vector is usually represented by its x- and y-components,i.e.
v
=(v
x
,v
y
).Thus the magnitude of the vector is given by:
22xy
vv
= +
v
 and the angle between the x-axis is given by:tan
θ
=(v
y
/v
x
)
 
Calculus of Multivariables
2
Algebraic definition of vectors in three dimensional space
A vector 
v
is defined in the three dimensional space by its x-, y- and z- components “
v
=(v
x
,v
y
,v
z
)The magnitude of 
v
is:
222xyz
vvv
= + +
v
 
xyz
o
(V, 0 , 0)
x
(0 , V , 0)
y
(0 , 0 , V)
z
(V, V, V)
xyz
 
V
α γβ
 
The angle
α
,
β
and
γ
are called the direction angles.The direction cosines of the vectors are defined by:
yxz
vvvcos, cos,cos
α β γ 
= = =
vvv
  Notice that: cos
2
α
+cos
2
β
+cos
2
γ
=1.
Example
: Calculate the distances of the points i) (1, 0, 2), ii) (– 2, 1, – 3) from theorigin. Also calculate the distance between each pair of points.
Solution:
The distance, r, from the origin O to the point P(x1, y1, z1) is given by
 
Calculus of Multivariables
3
r = OP = x12+ y12+ z12 In general the distance between two points P(x, y, z), P´(x´, y, z´) is given byPP´ = (x´– x)2+ (y´– y)2+ (z´– z)2 i)The distance of the point (1, 0, 2) from the origin is thereforer = 12+ 02+ 22=
5
ii) For (– 2, 1, – 3) we haver = (– 2)2+ 12+ (– 3)2= 4 + 1 + 9 =
14
iii) The distance between I) (1, 0, 2) and ii) (– 2, 1, – 3) is(– 2 – 1)2+ (1 – 0)2+ (– 3 – 2)2= 9 + 1 + 25 =
35
 
Zero vector and unit vector
A zero vector 
0
is a vector such that for any non-zero vector 
v
,
v
+
0
=
v
.A unit vector is a vector such that its magnitude is one and is usually represented by
ˆ
vv
v =
 For two dimensional space,unit vectors
i j
and
are defined as the unit vector havingthe directions of x-axis and y-axis respectively.If we have any vector 
v
=(v
x
, v
y
), we notice that we can write it into component form:
vij
=vv
xy
+
 

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