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Table Of Contents

1. Wind Turbine Concepts
1.1 Introduction
1.2 Conceptual aspects
1.2.1 Vertical axis turbines
1.2.2 Horizontal axis turbines
1.2.3 Number of rotor blades
1.2.4 Power control aspects
1.3 Economical aspects
1.4 Power production
1.4.1 Power curve
1.4.2 Annual energy production
1.5 Configurations and sizes
1.6 Future concepts
REFERENCES
2. Safety and Reliability
2.1 Safety philosophy
2.2.1 Control system
2.2.2 Protection system
2.2.3 Brake system
2.2.5 Fault tree analysis
2.3 Structural safety
2.3.1 Limit states
2.3.3 Structural reliability methods
2.3.5 Code calibration
2.4 Mechanical safety
2.5 Labour safety
2.5.2 Normal operation
2.5.3 Service, maintenance and repair
2.6 Codes and standards
3. External Conditions
3.1 Wind conditions
3.1.1 10-minute mean wind speed
3.1.3 Turbulence intensity
3.1.4 Lateral and vertical turbulence
3.1.5 Stochastic turbulence models
3.1.6 Wind shear
3.1.7 Wind direction
3.1.8 Transient wind conditions
3.1.9 Extreme winds – gusts
3.1.10 Site assessment
3.2 Other external conditions
3.2.1 Temperatures
3.2.2 Density of air
3.2.3 Humidity
3.2.4 Radiation and ultraviolet light
3.2.5 Ice
3.2.6 Rain, snow and hail
3.2.8 Earthquake
3.2.9 Lightning
4. Loads
4.1 Load cases
4.1.1 Design situations
4.1.2 Wind events
4.1.3 Design load cases
4.2 Load types
4.2.1 Inertia and gravity loads
4.2.2 Aerodynamic loads
4.2.3 Functional loads
4.2.4 Other loads
4.3.1 Model elements
4.3.3 Aerodynamic data assessment
4.3.4 Special considerations
4.4 Load analysis and synthesis
4.4.1 Fatigue loads
4.4.2 Ultimate loads
4.5 Simplified load calculations
4.5.1 Parametrised empirical models
4.5.2 The simple load basis
4.5.3 Quasi-static method
4.5.5 Parametrised load spectra
4.6 Site-specific design loads
4.7.1 Wave loads
4.7.2 Current loads
4.7.3 Ice loads
4.7.4 Earthquake loads
4.8 Load combination
5. Rotor
5.1 Blades
5.1.1 Blade geometry
5.1.2 Design loads
5.1.3 Blade materials
5.1.4 Manufacturing techniques
5.1.9 Blade testing
5.1.10 Maintenance
5.2 Hub
5.2.1 Determination of design loads
5.2.2 Strength Analysis
5.2.3 Analysis of bolt connections
5.2.4 Hub enclosure
5.2.5 Materials
5.2.6 Standards
6.1.3 Fatigue strength
6.1.4 Ultimate strength
6.1.5 Main shaft-gear connection
6.1.6 Materials
6.1.7 Standards
6.2 Main Bearing
6.2.1 Determination of design loads
6.2.2 Selection of bearing types
6.2.5 Rating life calculations
6.2.6 Connection to main shaft
6.2.7 Bearing housing
6.2.8 Connection to machine frame
6.2.9 Standards
6.3 Main gear
6.3.1 Gear types
6.3.2 Loads and capacity
6.3.3 Codes and standards
6.3.4 Lubrication
6.3.5 Materials and testing
6.5.1 Types of brakes
6.5.2 Brake discs and brake pads
6.5.3 Brake torque sequence
6.6 Hydraulic systems
6.6.1 Arrangement
6.6.2 Accumulators
6.6.3 Valves
6.6.5 Additional provisions
6.6.6 Codes and standards
6.7 Generator
6.7.1 Types of generators
6.7.2 Climate aspects
6.7.3 Safety aspects
6.7.4 Cooling and degree of sealing
6.7.5 Vibrations
6.7.6 Overspeed
6.7.7 Overloading
6.7.8 Materials
6.7.9 Generator braking
6.7.10 Lifetime
6.7.11 Testing of generators
6.8 Machine support frame
6.9 Nacelle enclosure
6.10 Yaw system
6.10.1 Determination of design loads
6.10.2 Yaw drive
6.10.3 Yaw ring
6.10.4 Yaw brake
6.10.5 Yaw bearing
6.10.6 Yaw error and control
6.10.7 Cable twist
6.10.8 Special design considerations
7. Tower
7.1 Load cases
7.2 Design loads
7.4 Tubular towers
7.4.1 Loads and responses
7.4.2 Extreme loads
7.4.3 Fatigue loads
7.4.4 Vortex induced vibrations
7.4.5 Welded joints
7.4.7 Stability analysis
7.4.8 Flange connections
7.4.9 Corrosion protection
7.4.10 Tolerances and specifications
7.6.1 Loads and responses
7.6.3 Extreme loads – parked turbine
7.6.4 Fatigue loading
8. Foundations
8.1 Soil investigations
8.1.1 General
8.2 Gravity-based foundations
8.2.1 Bearing capacity formulas
8.3 Pile-supported foundations
8.3.1 Pile groups
8.3.2 Axial pile resistance
8.3.3 Laterally loaded piles
8.4 Foundation stiffness
8.5.1 Fatigue
8.5.2 Crack-width
8.5.3 Execution
8.6.1 Introduction to concepts
8.6.2 Monopile
8.6.3 Tripod
9. Electrical System
Electrical system
9.1 Electrical components
9.1.1 Generators
9.1.2 Softstarter
9.1.3 Capacitor bank
9.1.4 Frequency converter
9.2 Wind turbine configurations
9.4 Electrical safety
9.5 Wind farm integration
10. Manuals
10.1 User manual
10.3 Installation manual
REFERENCE
11. Tests and Measurements
11.2 Load measurements
11.4 Power quality measurement
11.5 Blade testing
11.6 Noise measurements
A. Bolt Connections
A.1 Bolt standardization
A.2 Strength
A.3 Impact strength
A.4 Surface treatment
A.5 S-N curves
A.5.2 Allowable surface pressure
A.6 Pretension
A.6.1 Safety against loosening
A.8 Bolt force analysis
A.8.1 Stiffness of bolts
A.8.2 Stiffness of the mating parts
A.8.3 Force triangle
A.13 Codes and Standards
B. Rules of Thumb
B.1 Loads
B.1.1 Rotor loads
B.1.2 Fatigue loads
B.2 Rotor
B.3 Nacelle
B.3.1 Main shaft
B.4 Noise
C. Fatigue Calculations
C.1 Stress ranges
C.2 Fracture mechanics
C.3 S-N curves
C.4 The Palmgren-Miner rule
C.5 Fatigue in welded structures
C.8 S-N curves for composites
D. FEM Calculations
D.1 Types of analysis
D.2 Modelling
D.2.1 Model
D.2.2 Elements
D.2.3 Boundary conditions
D.2.4 Loads
D.3 Documentation
D.3.1 Model
D.3.2 Results
E.1 Steel
E.1.1 Structural steel
E.1.2 Alloy steel
E.2 Cast iron
E.4 Concrete
E.4.1 Mechanical properties
G.3 Air density vs. height
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Guidelines for Design of Wind Turbines

Guidelines for Design of Wind Turbines

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Published by: duesentriebarr on Oct 06, 2011
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12/25/2012

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