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Table Of Contents

2.1 Review: The Basic Chemistry of Oxygen
2.1.1 Diradical Nature of the Dioxygen Molecule
2.1.2 Metal-Oxygen Complexes
2.1.3 Biomimetic Oxidations
2.1.4 Hydrogen Peroxide and Alkylhydroperoxides
2.2.1 KA Oil from Cyclohexane
2.2.2 Adipic Acid from KA Oil
2.2.3 Related Processes
2.4.1 Air- and Oxygen-based Industrial Processes
2.6 Hydrogen Peroxide Route to Propylene Oxide
2.7.1 Epoxidation of Allylic Alcohols
2.7.2 Epoxidation of Simple Olefins
2.7.3 Vicinal Dihydroxylation of Olefins
2.9 Methacrolein and Methacrylic Acid from Isobutene
2.10.1 Isophthalonitrile from m-Xylene
2.11.1 Maleic Anhydride
2.11.2 Phthalic Anhydride
2.12 Silicalite Process to e-Caprolactam
2.12.1 Ammoximation of Cyclohexanone on TS-1
2.13 Oxidation of Phenol to Catechol and Hydroquinone
2.15.2 Chemical Basis of the Wacker Process
2.15.3 Wacker Process Operation
2.15.5 Oxidation of Propylene to Acetone
2.15.8 Uses of Vinyl Acetate
References
3.1.1 Hydrides and Dihydrogen Activation
3.1.4 Isomerization of Alkenes
3.2 Hydrotreating in Petroleum Chemistry
3.2.2 The Catalytic Process
3.2.3 Composition and Structure of HDS Catalysts
3.2.4 Mechanistic Studies
3.2.5 Deep Desulfurization
3.3.1 Hydrogenation of Fats
3.3.2 The Selectivity Problem
3.3.3 Nickel Catalysts and Catalytic Processes
3.4.1 The Uses of Hexamethylenediamine
3.4.2 The Hydrogenation of Adiponitrile
3.4.3 Insights into the Reaction Mechanism
3.6.1 The Synthesis of Metolachlor
3.6.2 Mechanistic Studies
3.7.1 The Synthetic Route to Menthol
3.7.2 Mechanistic Insights
3.8 Enantioselective Hydrogen Transfer
3.9 Ethylbenzene Dehydrogenation to Styrene
3.9.1 The Styrene Market
4.1 Introduction
4.1.2 Syngas as a Feedstock
4.1.3 The Water-Gas Shift Reaction
4.2 Carbonylation Reactions of Alcohols and Esters
4.2.1 Manufacture of Acetic Acid from Methanol
4.2.2 Acetic Acid Historical and Background
4.2.3 Cobalt-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methanol
4.2.6 Iridium-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methanol
4.4 Polyketones
4.6 Hydroformylation of Olefins
4.6.2 ‘‘Unmodified’’ Cobalt Catalysts
4.6.3 Phosphine-Modified Cobalt Catalysts
4.6.4 Rhodium-Catalyzed Hydroformylation
4.6.7 Enantioselective Hydroformylation
4.7 CO Hydrogenation
4.7.1 Methanol Synthesis
4.7.3 Fischer-Tropsch Technology
Annex 1.1 How are 1-alkenes formed from syngas?
Annex 1.2 Other mechanistic proposals
Annex 1.3 Homogeneous CO hydrogenation
Annex 2 Some Hints for Discussion Points
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Alkylation and Related Reactions
5.2.3 Cumene from Benzene and Propylene
5.2.4 2,6-Di-isopropylnaphthalene
5.2.5 Other Alkylations of Aromatics
5.3.1 Vinylarenes by Vinylation of Aromatics
5.3.2 Alkynylarenes by Vinylation of Triple Bonds
5.3.3 Biaryls by Aryl Coupling
5.3.5 Why Palladium?
5.4.1 1,4-Hexadiene from Butadiene and Ethylene
5.4.3 Octadienol from Butadiene
5.4.4 Adiponitrile by HCN Addition to Butadiene
5.5 Oligomerization of Olefins
Annex 1 Devising New Synthetic Pathways
Annex 3.1 Catalytic Efficiency and Selectivity
Annex 3.2 Reaction Media for Catalysis
Annex 3.3 C-H Activation
Annex 3.4 Multistep Reactions
6.3 Industrial Applications of Metathesis
6.3.1 Production of Light Olefins
6.3.2 The Shell Higher Olefins Process (SHOP)
6.4 Homogeneous Ruthenium Alkylidene Complexes
6.5 Speciality Polymers
6.6 Fine Chemicals and Pharmaceuticals
6.7 Recent Progress
6.8 Future Outlook
7.1 An Introductory Overview
7.2 Industrial Aspects of Polyolefin Production
7.2.1 Polyethylene Production
7.2.2 Polypropylene Production
7.3 Solid-State Polymerization Catalysts
7.3.1 Ziegler-Natta Catalysts
7.3.2 Phillips Catalysts
7.4 Soluble Olefin Polymerization Catalysts
7.4.1 Activation Reactions
7.4.2 Polyolefin Chain Growth
7.4.3 Stereochemistry of a-Olefin Enchainment
7.4.4 Chain-Growth Termination and Re-initiation
7.5 Supported Metallocene Catalysts
7.6 Copolymerization of Linear and Cyclic Olefins
Annex 3 Some Hints to Help Start the Discussions
Acknowledgements
A1.1 The Key Steps
A1.1.1 Metal Complexes
A1.1.2 Ligands in Coordination Complexes
A1.1.3 Carbon Monoxide and Metal Carbonyls
A1.1.4 Making Metal Carbonyls
A1.1.5 Metal Olefin Complexes
A1.2 Catalytic Cycles
A1.2.1 Ligand Substitution
A1.3 Ligands for Asymmetric Catalysis
A2.1 Background
A2.2 Active sites
A2.3 Surface Studies
A2.4 Classes of Heterogeneous Catalysts
A2.4.1 Metal Catalysts
A2.4.2 Metal Oxide Catalysts
A2.5 Catalyst Promoters
A2.6 Catalyst Poisoning/Deactivation
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Metal-Catalysis in Industrial Organic Processes

Metal-Catalysis in Industrial Organic Processes

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Published by: AS_Nuno on Oct 06, 2011
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