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All Physical

All Physical

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Published by: api-3734333 on Oct 15, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Atomic Structure
I.
Atomic structure
A.
Different model of atomic structure
B.
Isotopic mass and relative atomic mass
1.
Mass spectrometer
a)
Determination of atomic mass
b)
Determination of molecular mass
C.
Radioactivity of nuclide
1.
Nature of radioactivity
a)
Penetrating power of radiation
2.
Radioactive decay
a)
Half life
b)
Use of radioactive isotope
II.
Electronic structure of atoms
A.
Emission spectrum of hydrogen
1.
Origin of emission and absorption spectrum
2.
Pattern of energy levels of hydrogen
3.
Determination of the ionization energy
a)
Through the convergence limit of Lyman series
b)
Through Rydberg constant
B.
Detail electronic configuration
1.
Definition of ionization energy
2.
Successive ionization energy
3.
Periodicity of First ionization energy
a)
First I.E. across periods
b)
First I.E. down a group
4.
Quantum numbers
a)
Energy of electrons in different orbitals
5.
Building up of electrons in an atom
a)
Aufbau principle
b)
Pauli exclusion principle
c)
Hund's rule
d)
Building up of electrons
e)
Detail electronic configuration of some atoms
6.
Electronic configuration of first 36 elements
a)
Extra stability of half-filled and full-filled subshell
7.
Position of s-, p-, d- and f-block elements
III. Atomic orbitals
A.
Shape of s, p and d orbitals
IV. Periodic Table
A.
Variation in atomic radius
B.
Variation in electronegativity
Energetics
I.
Enthalpy Change (\u2206H)
A.
Definition of a system
B.
Definition of enthalpy (H) and enthalpy change (\u2206H)
1.
Constant pressure process
a)
Work done by a system
C.
Standard enthalpy change of formation (\u2206Hfo)
1.
Definition of\u2206Hfo
a)
Standard enthalpy change (\u2206Ho)
b)
Standard enthalpy change of formation (\u2206Hfo)
c)
Standard enthalpy change of formation of an element
2.
Direct determination of\u2206Hfo
a)
Use of simple calorimeter
D.
Other enthalpy change (\u2206H)
1.
Examples of enthalpy change
a)
Enthalpy of combustion
b)
Enthalpy of atomization
c)
Enthalpy of neutralization
d)
Enthalpy of hydrogenation
e)
Enthalpy of solution
f)
Enthalpy of reaction
E.
Hess\u2019s Law
1.
Indirect determination of\u2206Hfo
a)
Hess\u2019s Law
(1)
Use of energy level diagram / energy cycle
(2)
Use of equation
II.
Bonding Energy
A.
Bond energy
1.
Definition of bond energy
2.
Determination of bond energy term (bond enthalpy)
B.
Strenght of covalent bond
1.
Relationship between bond length and bond energy
2.
Factors affecting the bond strength
C.
Estimation of enthalpy change by bond energy
III.
Energetics of formation of ionic compounds
A.
Electron affinity
B.
Lattice energy
1.
Born-Haber cycle
a)
Determination of lattice energy by Born-Haber cycle
2.
Factors affecting the value of lattice energy
C.
Stoichiometry of ionic compounds
IV. Gibbs free energy change (\u2206G)
A.
Limitation of enthalpy change (\u2206H)
B.
Entropy (S) and entropy change (\u2206S)
C.
Gibbs free energy change (\u2206G)
Chemical Bonding
Page 1
Chemical Bonding
I.
Shape of molecule
A.
Lewis structure of molecule
1.
Oxidation no. of individual atoms in a molecule
2.
Formal charge of individual atoms in a molecule
3.
Limitation of octet rule
B.
Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPRT)
1.
Octet expansion of elements in Period 3
2.
Position of lone pair
3.
3-dimensional representation of molecular shape
C.
Hybridization Theory
1.
Overlapping of atomic orbital
2.
Hybridization theory
3.
Examples
a)
sp hybridizaion
b)
sp2 hybridizaion
c)
sp3 hybridizaion
d)
sp3d hybridizaion
e)
sp3d2 hybridizaion
4.
Structure and shape of hydrocarbons
a)
Characteristic of Carbon-Carbon bond
b)
Shape of hydrocarbons
(1)
Saturated hydrocarbons
(2)
Unsaturated hydrocarbons
(3)
Aromatic hydrocarbons
(a)
Delocalization of\u03c0-electrons
(b)
Stability of benzene
D.
Molecular Orbital Theory
II.
Ionic bonding
A.
Strength of ionic bond - lattice energy
B.
X-ray diffraction
1.
Electron density map of sodium chloride
C.
Periodicity of ionic radius
1.
Definition of radius
2.
Periodicity of ionic radius
3.
Size of isoelectronic particles

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