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Sizing Machine Further Explain

Sizing Machine Further Explain

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Published by: Asad on Oct 07, 2011
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07/15/2014

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SIZING
Sizing is a complementary operation which is carried out on warps formed by spunyarns with insufficient tenacity or by continuous filament yarns with zero twist. Ingeneral, when sizing is necessary, the yarn is beam warped, therefore all beamscorresponding to the beams are fed, as soon as warping is completed, to the sizingmachine where they are assembled. Sizing consists of impregnating the yarn withparticular substances which form on the yarn surface a film with the aim of improving yarn smoothness and tenacity during the subsequent weaving stage.Thanks to its improved tenacity and elasticity, the yarn can stand without problemsthe tensions and the rubbing caused by weaving.
 
The functions of the sizing operation are:-
 
1. To lay in the protruding fibers in the body of the yarn and to cover weak placesby encapsulating the yarn by a protective coating of the size film. The thickness of the size film coating should be optimized. Too thick a coating will be susceptibleto easy size shed-off on the loom.
 
2. To increase the strength of the spun warp yarn without affecting its extensibility.This is achieved by allowing the penetration of the size into the yarn. The size inthe yarn matrix will tend to bind all the fibers together. The increase in strengthdue to sizing is normally expected to be about 10 to 15% with respect to thestrength of the unsized yarn. Excessive penetration of the size liquid into the coreof the yarn is not desirable because it affects the flexibility of the yarn.
 
3. To m
ake a weaver’s beam with the exact number of warp threads ready for 
weaving.
 
Sizing machine:
 
A sizing machine is used to apply the size material to the yarns. The major parts of the sizing are the creel, size box, drying units, beaming and various controldevices.The size box is probably the most important section of the sizing machine. Duringthe sizing process, the sheet of yarns is passed through the size box which containsthe hot water solution or mixtures of sizing agents. The yarns pick up the requiredquantity of size solution in the size box, any excess size is squeezed oft as theyarns pass through squeeze rolls. Depending on the size material, warp quality anddensity, single and double immersion rolls and single squeeze and double squeezeconfigurations are used. Multiple size boxes can also he employed. In general,single box sizing machines have two squeezing rollers and two box machines havea single roller in each box. It is important that the rollers provide uniform
 
squeezing pressure. The squeezing system determines the degree of size pick up toa large extent. While providing size consistency, the roll pressure should beadjusted to get around 125
 — 
130% wet pick up for cotton yarns, 110
 — 
115% forpoly/cotton and 95
 — 
105% for polyester. On average, open-end yarns pick uparound 10
 — 
15% more wet size than a comparable ring spun yarn. Therefore,about 10% more water should be added to get the same add-on. The bottom rollersare usually made of steel and the top rollers are rubber coated.
 
The critical parameters to watch in the sizing process are size homogeneity,constant speed of the sizing machine, constant size concentrations and viscosity.Flooding or dry zones should be prevented in the size box. Temperature of the sizebox is important for proper size pick up. For 100% polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) sizing,a temperature of 70
 – 
75 °C is recommended. Constant size temperature can beobtained in two ways:
 
1. Direct heating in which steam is injected into the size.
 
2. Indirect heating in which steam flows in pipes around the double walled sizebox.
 
A cooker is used to prepare the size; powdered size is metered into weight stationsand then transferred to the cooker. Size mix is also called size liquor. Liquorconcentration and the amount of water absorbed by the warp after the squeezingrollers are measured using a microwave measuring head, which enables the degreeof sizing to be calculated. The degree of sizing can be calculated as the absolutedegree of sizing or as a relative value. If the measured degree of sizing is differentthan the set data, then the squeeze pressure in the box is changed with a controller.The squeeze pressure is also adjusted according to speed of the system.
 
Rotor cooker is normally used for size preparation, in a rotor cooker; the size isprepared without pressure. The ingredients are added cold and mixed with a rotorand raking agitator. Additional breaking elements can be used to obtain highshearing effect. The size ingredients are automatically fed-in to the size box.
 
After the size box, the yarns go through the dryer section. The wet yarns are driedby using hot air, infrared radiation or cylinder drying. Cylinder drying is doneusing steam heated hot rolls which are called drying cylinders. Sometimes, acombination of drying methods is used on the same machine.
 
 
 
The drying temperature is critical; excess temperature increases the penetration of size into the yam, which can lead to excessive hairiness and even yarn breakage.The typical temperature range is 80
 – 
105°C. In cylinder machines, the evaporationrate can be calculated as the mass of water evaporated per unit contact areabetween warp and drying cylinder per unit time. A typical evaporation rate in amodern slasher is around 13 kg/hr/m2. The maximum recommended machinespeed is 120 m/min.Splitting the warps after sizing and separate drying reduces the risk of adjacentyarns sticking together which reduces the number of yarn breaks. For air-jetweaving, a minimum of 75% open space on the dry cans is recommended for anytype of yarn.
 
Due to the nature of sizing, the yarns in the sheet may be stuck together at the exitof the dryer section. Therefore, they are separated into individual ends by usingleasing rods. First, the individual sheets of yarns f 
rom each warper’s beam are
separated followed by pins in the expansion comb to separate the yarns within each
sheet. Then the yarns are wound onto a loom beam for weaving (weaver’s beam).
 
Beam arrangements in the creel are usually two types:
 
1. Groups of 2, 4, 6 or 8, one to four tiers
 
2. Staggered, two-tier arrangement
 

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