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Curs Neuropsihologie

Curs Neuropsihologie

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03/18/2014

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 1
NEUROPSIHOLOGIECurs sinteticUz internLector dr. MIHAI IOSIF MIHAI
 
 2
CUPRINS
I. Obiectul neuropsihologiei...............................................................................41. Nevoia de “palpare” a psihicului..........................................................42. Viziuni asupra organiz
ă
rii neuropsihice a vie
ţ
ii....................................92.1. Mecanicismul..........................................................................92.2 Vitalismul...............................................................................112.3. Cibernetismul ………………………………………………14II. Apari
ţ
ia sistemului nervos
ş
i începuturile vie
ţ
ii psihice...............................161 Nivelul superior psihic de integrare adaptativ
ă
....................................162. Via
ţ
a animal
ă
diferit
ă
de cea vegetal
ă
……………….…………. 173.Via
ţ
a animal
ă
are a baz
ă
mi
ş
carea ……………………………….174.Apari
ţ
ia sistemului nervos difuz …………………………………185.Apari
ţ
ia sistemului nervos central ……………………………….19Psihogeneza reflect
ă
rii psihic
ă
……………………………………...201.
 
Iritabilitatea …………………………………………………… 202.
 
Excitabilitatea ………………………………………………3.
 
Sensibilitatea …………………………………………………III. Metodele de studiu neuropsihologice.........................................................15“Metoda-i totul”.....................................................................................15Interpretare epistemologic
ă
....................................................................15 Natural
ş
i artificial în experimentul neuropsihologic..............................15Experimentul natural
ş
i de laborator.......................................................16Tipicitatea experimentului neuropsihologic............................................16Valoarea experimentului neuropsihologic..............................................16Metodele
ş
i alegerea lor.........................................................................16Problema unit
ăţ
ilor de comportament.....................................................16Probabilitatea apari
ţ
iei unit
ăţ
ilor de comportament................................17Metoda observa
ţ
iei.................................................................................17IV. Unitatea neuronal
ă
 
ş
i activitatea psihic
ă
.....................................................18Morfologia neuronului...........................................................................18 Neuronul................................................................................................18Celula glial
ă
...........................................................................................19Propagarea semnalului neuronal.............................................................20Tipuri de poten
ţ
iale în nervi...................................................................20
 
 3
Poten
ţ
ialele de generare.........................................................................21Poten
ţ
alele de ac
ţ
iune.............................................................................22Transmiterea semnalelor prin sinapse.....................................................22V.Organizarea sistemului nervos ca baz
ă
macrostructural
ă
a vie
ţ
ii psihice......441. Sistemul nervos periferic (SNP).........................................................452. Centrii nervo
ş
i
ş
i începuturile reflect
ă
rii psihice ................................472.1.Cordonul spinal.........................................................................482.2. Func
ţ
ia reflex
ă
a m
ă
duvei.........................................................492.3. Reflexele medulare somatice....................................................504.
 
Mereu actuala psihosomatic
ă
………………………………………VI Trunchiul cerebral ca sediu al func
ţ
iilor vitale............................................29Bulbul rahidian............................................................................30Anatomie......................................................................................30Fiziologie.....................................................................................30Psihologie....................................................................................32VI. Puntea
ş
i mezencefalul ca sediu paleocefalic de control al mi
ş
c
ă
rilor complexe................................................................................................32Func
ţ
ia reflex
ă
a pun
ţ
ii.................................................................33Func
ţ
ia reflex
ă
a mezencefalului..................................................345. Controlul paleocefalic al vie
ţ
ii tonigene
ş
i afective............................38Forma
ţ
iunea reticulat
ă
..................................................................38Anatomie...........................................................................38Psihofiziologie...................................................................39Cerebelul......................................................................................41Anatomie...........................................................................41Func
ţ
iile cerebelului...........................................................42Hipotalamusul..............................................................................43Anatomie...........................................................................43Psihofiziologie...................................................................43Talamusul....................................................................................46Sistemul limbic............................................................................47Anatomie...........................................................................47Func
ţ
iile.............................................................................486. Controlul neocefalic al activit
ăţ
ii instrumentale
ş
i cognitive..............49Anatomia scoar 
ţ
ei cerebrale.........................................................50Func
ţ
iile c
ă
ilor 
ş
i centrilor neocefalici aferen
ţ
i.............................51

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