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Topology Course lecture notes - A. McCluskey, B. McMaster

# Topology Course lecture notes - A. McCluskey, B. McMaster

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05/24/2012

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Topology Course Lecture Notes
Aisling McCluskey and Brian McMasterAugust 1997

Chapter 1Fundamental Concepts
In the study of metric spaces, we observed that:(i) many of the concepts can be described purely in terms of open sets,(ii) open-set descriptions are sometimes simpler than metric descriptions,e.g. continuity,(iii) many results about these concepts can be proved using
only
the basicproperties of open sets (namely, that both the empty set and the un-derlying set
are open, that the intersection of any two open sets isagain open and that the union of arbitrarily many open sets is open).This prompts the question: How far would we get if we started with a collec-tion of subsets possessing these above-mentioned properties and proceededto deﬁne everything in terms of them?
1.1 Describing Topological Spaces
We noted above that many important results in metric spaces can be provedusing only the basic properties of open sets that
the empty set and underlying set
are both open,
the intersection of any two open sets is open, and
unions of arbitrarily many open sets are open.1

We will call any collection of sets on
satisfying these properties a topology.In the following section, we also seek to give alternative ways of describingthis important collection of sets.
1.1.1 Deﬁning Topological Spaces
Deﬁnition 1.1
A
topological space
is a pair
(
X,
)
consisting of a set
and a family
of subsets of
satisfying the following conditions:(T1)
and
(T2)
is closed under arbitrary union (T3)
is closed under ﬁnite intersection.
The set
is called a
space
, the elements of
are called
points
of the spaceand the subsets of
belonging to
are called
open
in the space; the family
of open subsets of
is also called a
topology
for
.
Examples
(i) Any metric space (
X,d
) is a topological space where
d
, the topologyfor
induced by the metric
d
, is deﬁned by agreeing that G shall bedeclared as open whenever each
x
in
G
is contained in an open ballentirely in
G
, i.e.
G
is open in (
X,
d
)
x
G,
r
x
>
0 such that
x
B
r
x
(
x
)
G.
(ii) The following is a special case of (i), above. Let
R
be the set of realnumbers and let
be the usual (metric) topology deﬁned by agreeingthat
G
is open in (
R,
I
) (alternatively,
-open)
x
G,
r
x
>
0 such that (
x
r
x
,x
+
r
x
)
G.
(iii) Deﬁne
0
=
{∅
,
}
for any set X — known as the
trivial
or
anti-discrete
topology.(iv) Deﬁne
D
=
{
G
:
G
}
— known as the
discrete
topology.2