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Topology Without Tears - SIDNEY a. MORRIS

Topology Without Tears - SIDNEY a. MORRIS

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04/18/2013

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TOPOLOGY WITHOUT TEARS
1
SIDNEY A. MORRIS
Version of June 22, 2001
2
1
c
Copyright 1985-2001. No part of this book may be reproduced by any process withoutprior written permission from the author.
2
This book is being progressively updated and expanded; it is anticipated that there willbe about fifteen chapters in all. Only those chapters which appear in colour have beenupdated so far. If you discover any errors or you have suggested improvements please e-mail:Sid.Morris@unisa.edu.au
 
Contents
Introduction iii1 Topological Spaces 1
1.1 Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Open Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91.3 Finite-Closed Topology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131.4 Postscript . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix 1: Innite Sets 21
ii
 
Introduction
Topology is an important and interesting area of mathematics, the study of which will not only introduce you to new concepts and theorems but also putinto context old ones like continuous functions. However, to say just this is tounderstate the significance of topology. It is so fundamental that its influenceis evident in almost every other branch of mathematics. This makes the studyof topology relevant to all who aspire to be mathematicians whether theirfirst love is (or will be) algebra, analysis, category theory, chaos, continuummechanics, dynamics, geometry, industrial mathematics, mathematical biology,mathematical economics, mathematical finance, mathematical modelling,mathematical physics, mathematics of communication, number theory,numerical mathematics, operations research or statistics. Topological notionslike compactness, connectedness and denseness are as basic to mathematiciansof today as sets and functions were to those of last century.Topology has several different branches general topology (also knownas point-set topology), algebraic topology, differential topology and topologicalalgebra — the first, general topology, being the door to the study of the others.We aim in this book to provide a thorough grounding in general topology.Anyone who conscientiously studies about the first ten chapters and solves atleast half of the exercises will certainly have such a grounding.For the reader who has not previously studied an axiomatic branch of mathematics such as abstract algebra, learning to write proofs will be a hurdle.To assist you to learn how to write proofs, quite often in the early chapters, weinclude anasidewhich does not form part of the proof but outlines the thoughtprocess which led to the proof. Asides are indicated in the following manner:In order to arrive at the proof, we went through this thought process,which might well be called the “discovery” or “experiment phase”.However, the reader will learn that while discovery or experimentationis often essential, nothing can replace a formal proof.iii

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