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Typhoid Fever Final

Typhoid Fever Final

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Published by: api-3718174 on Oct 15, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Introduction

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacteriumSalmonella
Typhi. In the United States about 400 cases occur each year, and 75% of these
are acquired while traveling internationally. Typhoid fever is still common in the
developing world, where it affects about 21.5 million persons each year.

Typhoid fever can be prevented and can usually be treated with antibiotics. If you are planning to travel outside the United States, you should know about typhoid fever and what steps you can take to protect yourself.

Patients Profile
Name: Shiela Acero

Age: 29 years old
Sex:Female
Status:MArried
Religion: Roman Catholic
Home address: House Redeemer, Butuan City

History of Illness
Two days prior to admission patient had been experiencing fever associated with
body malaise and frontoparietal headache. She just took Paracetamol.

One day prior to admission patient had notice a rashes on her back and along to
the extremities and so she decided to be admitted and have a proper
management of her condition.

Reason for admission

Patient was admitted at November 4,2007,Sunday a7 9:15am and was
accompanied by family members, she was ambulatory. With chief complaints of
fever, headache and body malaise. She was seen and examined by Dra. Daisy
Galbo and advised to have a laboratory test and examinations to properly
confirm the cause of her illness.

What is typhoid fever?

Typhoid fever is a bacterial infection of the intestinal tract and occasionally the bloodstream. It is an uncommon disease with only 30-50 cases occurring in New York each year. Most of the cases are acquired during foreign travel to underdeveloped countries. The germ that causes typhoid is a unique human strain of Salmonella called Salmonella typhi. Outbreaks are rare.

What are the signs and symptoms of typhoid fever?
The incubation period is usually 1-2 weeks and the duration of the illness is about 4-6 weeks. The
patient experiences:
\u2022
poor appetite,
\u2022
headaches,
\u2022
generalized aches and pains,
\u2022
fever, and
\u2022

lethargy.
Persons with typhoid fever usually have a sustained fever as high as 103 to 104 degrees
Fahrenheit (39 to 40 degrees Centigrade).
Chest congestion develops in many patients and abdominal pain and discomfort are common.
The fever becomes constant. Improvement occurs in the third and fourth week in those without
complications. About 10% of patients have recurrent symptoms (relapse) after feeling better for
one to two weeks. Relapses are actually more common in individuals treated with antibiotics.

How is typhoid fever spread?
Salmonella Typhi lives only in humans. Persons with typhoid fever carry the bacteria in their

bloodstream and intestinal tract. In addition, a small number of persons, called carriers , recover from typhoid fever but continue to carry the bacteria. Both ill persons and carriers shedS. Typhi in their feces (stool).

You can get typhoid fever if you eat food or drink beverages that have been handled by a person who is sheddingS. Typhi or if sewage contaminated withS. Typhi bacteria gets into the water you use for drinking or washing food. Therefore, typhoid fever is more common in areas of the world where handwashing is less frequent and water is likely to be contaminated with sewage.

OnceS. Typhi bacteria are eaten or drunk, they multiply and spread into the bloodstream. The
body reacts with fever and other signs and symptoms.
How is Typhoid Fever treated and what is the prognosis?

Typhoid Fever is treated with antibiotics which kill theSal monella bacteria. Prior to the use of
antibiotics, the fatality rate was 10%. Death occurred from overwhelming infection, pneumonia,
intestinal bleeding, or intestinal perforation. With antibiotics and supportive care, mortality has
been reduced to 1-2%.
Several antibiotics are effective for the treatment of typhoid fever. Chloramphenicol was the
original drug of choice for many years. Because of rare serious side effects, chloramphenicol has
been replaced by other effective antibiotics. If relapses occur, patients are retreated with
antibiotics.
The carrier state, which occurs in 3-5% of those infected, can be treated with prolonged
antibiotics. Often, removal of the gallbladder, the site of chronic infection, will cure the carrier
state.
For those traveling to high risk areas, vaccines are now available.

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