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My Chemistry Folio Form 5 2008 (Raw Data)

My Chemistry Folio Form 5 2008 (Raw Data)



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Published by: api-3696665 on Oct 15, 2008
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1. Cleansing agents are chemical substance used to remove grease and dirt.
2. There are two type of cleansing agents :
a) Soaps
b) Detergents
3. Soaps are sodium or potassium salt of fatty acids that contains 12 to 18
carbon atoms per molecule.
4. Soaps are cleansing agents made from animal fats or vegetable oil by
The History of Soap Manufacturing
1. Soap have been used for more than 3000 years. It was recorded that the
Babylonians were making soaps around 2800 B.C.
2. The \u2018Purifying Oils\u2019 were recorded on Hebrew tablets in 4000 B.C.

3. In ancients time, soap made from ashes of plants which contain sodium
carbonate and potassium carbonate. The ashes were boiled with lime
(calcium oxide) to produce caustic potash (potassium hydroxide). Caustic
potash is then boiled with the animal fats to produce soap.

a) Ash +
Caustic Potash
b) Caustic Potash + Animal Fats

4. In 1861, the Belgian Chemist Ernest Solvay (1838-1922) discovered the
process to make soda (sodium carbonate) from common salt (sodium
chloride) and calcium carbonate.

5. This process is known as the Solvay Process which produces sodium
carbonate cheaply for industrial use. Sodium carbonate (often called soda or
soda ash) is used for making glass, soaps and detergents.

Soap and Detergents

6. Michel Chevreul (1786-1889), a French chemist, was noted for his research in
the composition of animal fats are composed of fatty acids and glycerol. This
discovery contributed to the rapid development of the soap and candle

Preparation of soap by saponification

1. Soap is a cleansing agents produced by the reaction between sodium
hydroxide or potassium hydroxide with animal fats or vegetable oils. This
reaction is known as saponification.

2. Fats and vegetable oils are large, naturally occurring ester molecules. When
fats or oils are boiled with concentrated alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide,
saponification occur and the ester molecules are broken down into soap and

Fats or vegetable oils + concentrated alkalis
soap +glycerol

3. Saponification is the alkaline hydrolysis of ester using alkali solutions. From the chemist aspect, soaps are sodium salts or potassium salts of long chain carboxylic acids (with 12 to 18 carbon atoms per molecule).

4. Some examples of soaps are shown below.
a) Sodium palmitate, C15H31COONa
b) Sodium oleate, C17H33COONa
c) Sodium stearate, C17H35COONa

Additives such as perfume, colouring matter and sometimes antiseptics are
added to soaps to enhance their marketability .

5. Glyceryl tristearates are naturally occurring esters commonly found in animal
fats and vegetable oils. When the ester is boiled with concentrated sodium
hydroxide solution, saponification (alkaline hydrolysis) occurs and mixture of
sodium stearate (soap) and glycerol is obtained.

Glyceryl tristearate
Sodium stearate (soap)
6. The soap produced can be precipitated by adding common salt (sodium
chloride) to the reaction mixture.
7. The sodium chloride added reduced the solubility of soap in water. As a
result, precipitation of soap occurs.

8. The properties of soap depend on :
a) The type of alkali used for saponification
b) The type of animal fats or vegetable oils used.

9. Soaps produced from sodium hydroxide are hard, whereas soaps produced
from potassium hydroxide are soft.
10.Animal fats (tallow) from cows and vegetable oils (such as palm oil or olive
oil) ae used for making soap.
The structure of soap molecule

1. When soap is dissolved in water, it will dissociate and produce sodium ions
and carboxylate ions (RCOO-). For example, sodium stearate dissolves in
water to form sodium ions and stearate ions.

C17H35COONa (s) + water
C17H35COO- (aq)
sodium stearate
stearate ions
+ Na+ (aq)

2. The active substance in soap is the carboxylate ion, for example, stearate
ion. The stearate ion consist of two parts : the \u2018head\u2019 and the \u2018tail\u2019. The
\u2018head\u2019 id negatively charged and the \u2018tail\u2019 is a long hydrocarbon chain.

3. The \u2018head\u2019 contains the -C-O- ions which dissolves readily in water
(hydrophilic) but does not dissolve in oil. Conversely, the \u2018tail\u2019 contains a long

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