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Plsql

Plsql

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PL/SQL
User\u2019s Guide and Reference
Release 9.0.1
June 2001
Part No. A89856-01
PL/ SQL User \u2019s Gu ide and Reference, Release 9.0.1
Part No. A89856-01
Copyright \u00a9 1996, 2001, Oracle Corporation. All rights reserved.
Primary Authors: TomPortfolio, John Russell

Contributors: Shashaanka Agrawal, Cailein Barclay,Dmitri Bronnikov, Sharon Castledine, Thomas Chang, Ravindra Dani, Chandrasekharan Iyer, Susan Kotsovolos, Neil Le, Warren Li, Chris Racicot, Mu rali Vemu lapati, Gu han Viswanathan, Minghui Yang

The Programs (which include both the software and documentation) contain proprietary information of
Oracle Corporation; they are provided under a license agreement containing restrictions on use and
disclosure and are also protected by copyright, patent, and other intellectual and industrial property

laws. Reverse engineering, disassembly, or decomp ilation of the Programs is prohibited.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice. If you \ufb01nd any problems in the documentation, please report themto us in writing. Oracle Corporation does not warrant that this document is error free. Except as may be expressly permitted in your license agreement for these

Programs, no part of these Programs may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, for any purpose, without the express written permission of Oracle Corporation.
If the Programs are delivered to the U.S. Government or anyone licensing or using the programs on
behalf of the U.S. Government, the following notice is applicable:
Restricted Rights NoticePrograms delivered subject to the DOD FAR Supplement are "comm ercial
comp uter software" and use, duplication, and disclosure of the Programs, including documentation,

shall be subject to the licensing restrictions set forth in the applicable Oracle license agreement.
Otherwise, Programs delivered subject to the Federal Acquisition Regulations are "restricted comp uter
software" and use, duplication, and disclosure of the Programs shall be subject to the restrictions in FAR

52.227-19, Comm ercial Comp uter Software - Restricted Rights (June, 1987). Oracle Corporation, 500
Oracle Parkway, Redwood City, CA 94065.
The Programs are not intended for use in any nuclear, aviation, mass transit, medical, or other inherently

dangerous applications. It shall be the licensee's responsibility to take all appropriate fail-safe, backup, redundancy, and other measures to ensure the safe use of such applications if the Programs are used for such purposes, and Oracle Corporation disclaims liability for any damages caused by such use of the Programs.

Oracle, Oracle Store, and SQL*Plus are registered trademarks, and Oracle Call Interface, Oracle
Developer, Oracle Forms, Oracle Reports, Oracle8i, Oracle9i, PL/ SQL, Pro*C, and Pro*C/ C++ are
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respective owners.
iii
Contents

Send Us Your Comments.................................................................................................................xix Preface..........................................................................................................................................................xxi What\u2019s New in PL/SQL?...................................................................................................................xxxi 1 Overview of PL/SQL

Understanding the Main Features of PL/SQL...............................................................................1-2

Block Structure..............................................................................................................................1-2 Variables and Constants..............................................................................................................1-3 Cu rsors...........................................................................................................................................1-5 Cu rsor FOR Loops........................................................................................................................1-6 Cu rsor Variables...........................................................................................................................1-6 Attributes.......................................................................................................................................1-7 Control Structures........................................................................................................................1-9 Modu larity...................................................................................................................................1-12 Data Abstraction.........................................................................................................................1-14 Information Hiding....................................................................................................................1-16 Error Hand ling............................................................................................................................1-16

PL/SQL Architecture........................................................................................................................1-17
In the Oracle Database Server...................................................................................................1-18
In Oracle Tools............................................................................................................................1-20
Advantages of PL/SQL.....................................................................................................................1-20
Sup port for SQL..........................................................................................................................1-20

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