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Cryptography

Cryptography

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Published by api-3748680
DES printout
DES printout

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Published by: api-3748680 on Oct 15, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Abstract
DES is the archetypal block cipher \u2014 an algorithm that takes a fixed-length string of
plaintext bits and transforms it through a series of complicated operations into another
ciphertext bitstring of the same length. In the case of DES, the block size is 64 bits. DES

also uses ake y to customize the transformation, so that decryption can only be performed by those who know the particular key used to encrypt. The key ostensibly consists of 64 bits; however, only 56 of these are actually used by the algorithm. Eight bits are used solely for checkingparit y, and are thereafter discarded. Hence the effective key length is 56 bits, and it is usually quoted as such.

Keywords
DES -Block Cipher-Symmetric Cipher-Feistel Cipher-Permutation-Substitution-
Encryption-Decryption
Introduction

The origins of DES go back to the early 1970s. In 1972, after concluding a study on the
US government's computer security needs, the US standards bodyNBS (National Bureau
of Standards) \u2014 now namedNIST (National Institute of Standards and Technology) \u2014
identified a need for a government-wide standard for encrypting unclassified, sensitive
information. Accordingly, on 15 May 1973, after consulting with the NSA, NBS solicited
proposals for a cipher that would meet rigorous design criteria. None of the submissions,
however, turned out to be suitable. A second request was issued on 27 August 1974. This
time,IBM submitted a candidate which was deemed acceptable, a cipher developed
during the period 1973\u20131974 based on an earlier algorithm, Horst Feistel'sLuc ifer cipher.
The team at IBM involved in cipher design and analysis included Feistel,Wa l t e r

Tuchman, Don Coppersmith, Alan Konheim, Carl Meyer, Mike Matyas, Roy Adler, Edna
Grossman, Bill Notz, Lynn Smith, and Bryant Tuckerman.
DES Algorithm
The basic operations are

1 Initial permutation (IP)
2 Final permutation (IP-1)
3 Expansion function (E)
4 Permutation (P)
5 Permuted choice 1 (PC-1)
6 Permuted choice 2 (PC-2)
7 Substitution boxes (S-boxes)
8 Rotations in the key-schedule

Initial permutation (IP)

This table specifies the input permutation on a 64-bit block. The meaning is as follows: the first bit of the output is taken from the 58th bit of the input; the second bit from the 50th bit, and so on, with the last bit of the output taken from the 7th bit of the input.

Final permutation (IP-1)
The final permutation is the inverse of the initial
permutation; the table is interpreted similarly.
IP
58

50 42 34 26 18 10 2 60 52 44 36 28 20 12 4 62 54 46 38 30 22 14 6 64 56 48 40 32 24 16 8 57 49 41 33 25 17 9 1 59 51 43 35 27 19 11 3 61 53 45 37 29 21 13 5 63 55 47 39 31 23 15 7

IP-1
40 8 48 16 56 24 64 32
39 7 47 15 55 23 63 31
38 6 46 14 54 22 62 30
37 5 45 13 53 21 61 29
36 4 44 12 52 20 60 28
35 3 43 11 51 19 59 27
34 2 42 10 50 18 58 26
33 1 41 9 49 17 57 25

Expansion function (E)

The expansion function is interpreted as for the initial and final permutations. Note that
some bits from the input are duplicated at the output; e.g. the fifth bit of the input is
duplicated in both the sixth and eighth bit of the output. Thus, the 32-bit half-block is
expanded to 48 bits.

Permuted choice 1 (PC-1)

The "Left" and "Right" halves of the table show which
bits from the inputke y form the left and right sections of the key schedule state. Note that
only 56 bits of the 64 bits of the input are selected; the remaining eight were specified for
use aspari t y bits.

E
321 2 3 4 5
4 5 6 7 8 9

8 9 10 11 12 13 12 13 14 15 16 17 16 17 18 19 20 21 20 21 22 23 24 25 24 25 26 27 28 29 28 29 30 31 32 1

PC-1
Left

57 49 41 33 25 17 9
1 58 50 42 34 26 18
10 2 59 51 43 35 27
19 11 3 60 52 44 36

Right

63 55 47 39 31 23 15 7 62 54 46 38 30 22 14 6 61 53 45 37 29 21 13 5 28 20 12 4

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