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Revised Literature Review by Dr

Revised Literature Review by Dr

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Published by api-3748765
This is the revised draft of the literature review.
This is the revised draft of the literature review.

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Published by: api-3748765 on Oct 15, 2008
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03/18/2014

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Productivity Growth in Philippine
Agriculture: A Literature Review
Submitted by
Romeo G. Teruel
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1. Introduction

With the sizable contribution of agriculture to the Philippine economy, the country\u2019s economic future will continue to be highly affected by agriculture\u2019s performance.

In recent years, the agricultural sector has accounted for approximately 20 per cent of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and about 14 per cent of the country\u2019s export earnings. In addition, it employs almost half of the country\u2019s labor force. Thus, the dependence of the majority of the rural poor on the agriculture as the major source of livelihood remains high.

Recent discussions have expressed cause of concern regarding the future role of Philippine agriculture in the process of economic development. Agricultural production stagnated in the 1980s, growing at an average of 1 per cent annually. From 1990 to 1995, the average annual growth rate increased to 1.4 per cent; by 1996-2000, however, this declined to 0.60 per cent (David, 1996a; Development Indicators for the Philippine Agriculture, 2002). Furthermore, the past and present agricultural scenarios seem to suggest that Philippine agriculture is lagging behind other agricultural economies in terms of comparative competitiveness. The Philippines has been transformed into a net agricultural importing country over the last decade. This trade scenario is the complete opposite compared to the scenarios observed in other neighboring countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand, which have consistently posted an increasing agricultural surplus since the 1970s. It has also been shown that the dismal growth of the agriculture correlates with the overall growth of the economy. Several studies have shown that the decline in agricultural

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growth can be attributed to the continued deceleration of productivity (Mundlak,
2004 and Teruel and Kuroda, 2004, 2005).
The objectives of this paper are as follows:

1. To contribute a literature review on agricultural productivity analysis, providing a critical assessment of the state-of-the-art at both international and national levels;

2. To describe the standard and emerging empirical techniques used in agricultural productivity studies, internationally and in the Philippines, including econometric analysis and growth accounting;

3. To identify the similarities, relationships, and differences between the
techniques within a coherent framework;

4. To assess what is known about agricultural productivity growth in the Philippines, critical gaps in our knowledge and data on the nature, sources, and causes of productivity growth; and

5. To propose a theoretical framework and empirical technique for use in
the aggregate agriculture sector analysis of the PGPA

The review is composed of two stages: 1) theoretical and empirical. The first stage aims to examine the five theoretical approaches to measuring productivity growth such as: 1) the growth accounting, 2) index number, 3) econometrics, 4) the distance function based-Malmqvist approach and 5) the stochastic frontier approach. The second stage intends to review the empirical studies on productivity in Philippine agriculture that employ these approaches. The availability of data on output and input is essential for the accurate

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