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Constantin Zuckerman. The Reign of Constantine V in the Miracles of St. Theodore the Recruit (BHG 1764). Revue des études byzantines, tome 46, 1988. pp. 191-210.

Constantin Zuckerman. The Reign of Constantine V in the Miracles of St. Theodore the Recruit (BHG 1764). Revue des études byzantines, tome 46, 1988. pp. 191-210.

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Constantin Zuckerman

The Reign of Constantine V in the Miracles of St. Theodore the Recruit (BHG 1764)
In: Revue des études byzantines, tome 46, 1988. pp. 191-210.
Constantin Zuckerman

The Reign of Constantine V in the Miracles of St. Theodore the Recruit (BHG 1764)
In: Revue des études byzantines, tome 46, 1988. pp. 191-210.

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The Reign of Constantine V in the Miracles of St. Theodore theRecruit (BHG 1764)
In: Revue des études byzantines, tome 46, 1988. pp. 191-210.
AbstractREB 46 1988 France p. 191-210C. Zuckerman, The Reign of Constantine V in the Miracles of St. Theodore the Recruit (BHG 1 764). — One of St. Theodore theRecruit's miracles in his anonymous enkomion BHG 1764 is an eye-witness account of an Arab raid dated « in the fourteenthyear of the God-protected and Christ-loving reign of Constantine, (...) at the beginning of the seventh indiction. » The presentstudy suggests that in spite of the pious epithets, the emperor in question is Constantine V, the only Constantine whosefourteenth year overlapped a seventh indiction. The study presents the historical background of the raid — dated in 753/4 — andanalyzes the ideological stand of the author of the enkomion, a closet icon-worshipper who used St. Theodore's miracles to statethe orthodox position on all major planks of the iconoclast controversy. In the Appendix, miracles # 2 and # 3 are related toevents from Heraclius' first Persian campaign of 622, which permits to take a fresh look at the geographical setting and thechronology of the campaign.Citer ce document / Cite this document :Zuckerman Constantin. The Reign of Constantine V in the Miracles of St. Theodore the Recruit (BHG 1764). In: Revue desétudes byzantines, tome 46, 1988. pp. 191-210.
 
THE
REIGNOF
CONSTANTINE
V
IN
THE
MIRACLES OF
ST.
THEODORE
THE
RECRUIT
{BHG
1764)
Constantine
ZUCKERMAN
The anonymous enkomion
listed
in
the
BHG
1764 under
the
title
of
convenience
«
Life,
Education
and
Miracles
of
St.
Theodore
the
Recruit
»
was
pronounced
in
Euchaita
(Avkhat),
the
city in
north-eastern
Anatolia
which
housed
the
saint's
relics
and
constituted
the
recognized
center
of
his
cult.
It
was edited
twice
by
Delehaye
from
the
sole
manuscript preserved,
the
eleventh
century
Vindobonensis
theol.
gr.
60'.
In
this
text,
the
miracles
whichfollow
the
description
of
St.
Theodore's
earthly
exploits
all
have
a
distinctly
local
character.
The
first
tells
the
story
of
St.
Theodore's
icon
preserved
in
Euchaita
«
till
this
very
day
».
It
turns
out
that shortly after
his
martyr's
death,
the
saint
volunteered
to
pose
for
the
painter
in
full
armour
;
thus
the
resulting
image
faithfully
reproduced
his
appearance
in
life.
Miracles
#2
and
#3
are
concerned
with
the
desecration
of
St.
Theod
ore's
relics
by
Persians and
the
divine
punishmentsubsequently
inflicted
on
their
army
not far
from
Euchaita.
And
finally,
the
last
five
miracles,
byfar
the
largest
part
of
the
collection,
occurred
in
the
author's
own
time
when
the
very
existence
of
the
city
was
endangered
as
the
result
of
Arab
attacks. An
eye-witness,
the
author
of the
enkomion
not
only recounts
the
events
in
vivid
detail,
but
also
provides
the
date
of
the
most destructive
incursion.
It
started
«
in
the fourteenth
year of
the
God-protected
and
1.
H.
Delehaye,
Les
légendes
grecques
des
saints
militaires,
Paris
1
909,
p.
1
83-20
,
and
in
AASS
Nov.,
IV,
p.
49-55.
The
complete
title
runs
as
following
:
Βίος
προ
τοϋ
μαρτυρίου
και
ή
έκ παιδος
αναγωγή τε
καί
αΰξησις
και
θαύματα
εξαίσια
τοϋ
αγίου
και
πανενδόξου
μεγαλομάρτυρος
Θεοδώρου.
Revue
des
Études
byzantines
46,
1988,
p.
191-210.
 
192
C.
ZUCKERMAN
Christ-loving
reign
of
Constantine
(...)
at
the
beginning
of
the
seventh
indiction
»
and
continued
until
spring.
This
date,
reliable
as
it
may
appear, has
suffered
at
the
hands
of
scholars
a
fate not
unworthy
of
the
martyr
himself. In
his
final
edition
of
thetext,
Delehaye
printed
it
with
the
following
correction
:
τω
τεσσαρεσκαιδεκάτω
ετει
της
θεοφύλακτου
και
φιλοχρίστου
βασιλείας
<'ΡωμανοΟ,
είκοστω
πρώτα»
Κωνσταντίνου.
He claimed
that
no fourteenth year of
any
Constantine
corresponded
to
a
seventh
indiction2.
Sigalas,
convinced
that
the
text
could
not
be
written
before
the
ninth
century
since
it
features
St.
Theodore
slaying
the
dragon,
also
placed
it
under
Constantine
VII
;
however,
instead
of
inserting
a
reference
to
Romanos
I
like
Delehaye,
he
preferred
to
correct
the
indiction3.
Dorothy
Abrahamse,
who
consecrated
an
appendix
in
her
PhD
thesis
to
the
dating
of
St.
Theodore's
miracles, rejected,
with
perfect
justification,
Delehayes
conjecture
;
yet
her
own
conclusions
turned
out
to
be
even
more
radical.
Citing general
historical
considerations,
she
proposed
to
setthe
Arab
attack
in
the
seventh
century,
«
under
Constantine
IV
or
possibly Constans
II
», thus
renouncing
any
attempt to
account
for
the
elements
of
dating
provided
by
the
text4.
And
yet,
such
an
arbitrary
approach
to
the
date
as
it
was
actually
transmitted
is
hardly
founded.
For
it
did
happen,
and
only
once,
that
the
fourteenth
yearof
an
emperor
named Constantine overlapped
a
seventh
indiction.
It
was
in
754and
the
emperor
in
question
was
Constantine
V.
It
is
easy
to
imagine
that
Delehaye,
when checking
the
regnal
years
and
the
indictions,
did
not
even
consider
this
reign.
The
last
thing
one
would
expect
in
a
text
qualifying
Constantine
V's
rule as
θεοφύλακτος
and
φιλό-χριστος
is
a
story
of a
saint
coming
to
pose
for
his
icon.
Another
difficulty
is
that
Constantine
V's
fourteenth
year
(18
June
754-17
June
755)
included
not
the
beginning
but
the
end
of
the
seventh
indiction
(1
Sept.
753-31
Aug.
754)5.
None
of
theseproblems,however,
is
of
such
weight
so
as
to
undermine
the
value
of
the
date
transmitted and,
what
is
more,
being
patently interrelated,
they
contribute
to
each
other's
solution.
As
we
hope
to
show
below,
the
major
Arab
raid
which
hurt
Euchaita
must
have
taken
place
not later
than
autumn-winter
753/4.
As
it
is
most
2.
AASS
Nov.,
IV,
p.
53,
cf.
p.
17.
The
resulting
year
is
933/4.
3.
A.
Sigalas,
Des
Chrysippos
von
Jerusalem
enkomion
auf
den
hi.
Johannes
den
Täufer,
Athens
1937, p.
100
n.
1 ;
Sigalas'
date
is
927.
On
the
episode
of
the
dragon-slaying
which
in
fact
has
no
bearing
on
the
question
of
dating
see
n.
32
below.
4.
D.Z.
de
F.
Abrahamse, Hagiographie
Sources
for
Byzantine
Cities,
500-900
A.D.,
The
University
of
Michigan
Ph.D.
Thesis
1967,
p.
347-354,
cf.
p.
25.
5.
Incidentally,
Delehayes
correction
presents
the
same
problem.
The
regnal
year
of
Romanos
I
started
on
December
17th,
and
so
the
beginning
of
the
seventh
indiction
belonged
to
his
thirteenth
year.

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