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Published by chuzlink2003

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Published by: chuzlink2003 on Oct 08, 2011
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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1) In communication transmission systems, mux (pronounce
, sometimes spelled "MUX") isan abbreviation for multiplexing,a device that sends multiple signals on a carrier channel at the
same time in the form of a single, complex signal to another device that recovers the separatesignals at the receiving end. The receiver is sometimes called a
(or "DEMUX").2) On the Internet, a MUX is a multi-user text game played over the Internet, using theTinyMUX server. This kind of game started with the MUD (multi-user dungeon) movement.
DXX Technology
 Digital Cross Connect or DXX is a system that covert the signals from one communicationmedium to another. Typically DXX was used to convert the high level TDM signals in telephonesystems for example DSI bit streams into another DSI streams. DXX devices are available forboth T
carrier and E- Carrier based circuits. DXX are also used to connect two different datastreams like Frame Relay and Serial Communication. DXX circuits can be used switch trafficfrom one circuit to another in case of a network failure among the network.
For example if a frame relay network gets deactivated for any reason, DXX can convert the traffic toanother network like ATM.
In this case DXX switches can manipulate the traffic circuits between different networks andnetwork types. It is also used to provide interoperability between network devices and network speeds.With DXX, higher levels of flexibility can be provided which inany other case can cause greater costs to the network operations.This flexibility comes with DXX at lower costs. With DXX, synchronization becomes possiblewith higher network seeds and lower network speeds.One important thing to be noted is that DXX are not packet network switches. DXX switchbetween circuits and are a special means for circuit switched networks. This arrangement is alsoinevitable in longer networks like the ones that expand over weeks or months.
This type of arrangement can’t be made in packet networks that operate over short period of 
time. DXX are different from packet switches in a way that packet switches provide thetransportation to different network destinations while in the case of DXX, it has a specific set of destinations to which it switches traffic in circuits.Digital Cross connects can connect extremely high speed networks with lower speed networks toachieve a mutually synchronized speed for common data transformation in the network.
DXX are also capable of interconnect fiber optic equipment and D1/ T1/ E1 etc. It can evenprovide compatibility between rather new SDH, PDH and SONET.If the speed of SDH is 40 mbps and the speed id T1 is 2 Mbps then with the help of two DXXs,Two T1as and one SDH, you can divert two different streams of T1 to SDH and vice versamaking a communication of 4 Mbps possible through the network.It is also possible to connect more T1s with single SDH for maximum medium utilizationthrough multiple DXXs. You can avoid higher costs through DXX by using DSX cross connectpatch panels.
Introduction To Wi-Max
 Wi-Max is a broadband wireless network technology and it is a direct competitor of DigitalSubscribers Lines (DSL). Wi-Max stands for Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access.It has different standards such as 802.16a, 802.16e and 802.16d. A group known as Wi Maxforum formed in 2001 to observe and promote the Wimax standards. Among the board of directors of WiMax forum are Intel, Sprint, Samsung, BT, Motorola, FujiTsu and ZTE.
Wi-Max is the next step of Wi-Fi and it provides the maximum speed up to 70Mb/sec. Wi-Maxservices are of two types wired and wireless. In the wireless services come Wifi Wi-Max 802.16and WPAN.Further under Wi-Fi comes WLAN that covers less distance as compared to Wi-MAX. The maindifference between the Wi-Fi and Wi-Max is that Wi-Fi is a base band and Wi-Max is abroadband.Wi-Max provides quad services such as phone, video, voice, data and cable TV. Wi-Maxprovides more quality and speed and the data transfer rate can be up to 70 Mbps. The 802.16dstandard supports directional antenna base equipment i.e. user has to have a static connection andit does not support the roaming users. The 802.16e standard supports the small chips embeddedin the motherboard. It is comparatively a cheap solution because no extra equipment would berequired to make a Wi-Max connection.The manufacturers that want to design the motherboard with thebuilt-in Wi-Max card must have to obtain Wi-Max certification,which is given for the conformance and interoperability. The range of the Wi-Max is about 30miles from the base stations. Wi-Max communication system depends on the cells that can travelup to 48 KM.The main standards of the Wi-Max include 802.16a that has limited access, 802.16d thatprovides high speed and 802.16e is portable and provides the best broadband quality. Wi-Maxsupports fixed, nomadic, portability, simple mobility and full mobility connections. The devices
that operates in the simply mobility are PDAs and smart phone and the devices that operates inthe full mobility are the laptop, PCMCIA, PDA and smart phone.The devices that make the Wi-Max network are CPE, OSM, Access points and microwavebackhaul. CPE talks to the Access point by using the Wi-max standard. Base station offloads thetraffic on the city POP by using the microwave backhaul.Wi-Max is the best solution for the banks, business, multinational organizations and thecorporate sectors. By creating the VPNs many corporate organization can enjoy the high speedwireless networking.The deployment of the Wi-Max is similar to the Wi-fi. The Wi-Max access point sends signals tothe Wi-
Max receivers, which is placed at the top of the room at the subscriber’s end. Quality of 
service (QOS) is some issue with the Wi-Max because when more users gain access to the accesspoints to towers. Wi-Max is an ideal wireless network communication system where is distanceis not favorable for the wired networks. Wi-Max supports a wide range of the frequencies up to66 GHz.Wi-Max was initially designed to provide a high speed network access to the MAN(Metropolitan area network). Wi-Max wireless technology is also compatible with the cellularnetworks and it can access any cellular tower easily. Wi-Max has a great potential to eliminatethe use of wired networking system.
This tutorial provides the basic introduction to atm network technology, packet switching, cellbase, telecommmunication technology, high speed bandwidth usage in this technology. ATM(Asynchronous Transfer Mode) is a high speed network technology that has become thestandardized solution for the telecommunication industry, teleconferencing, videoconferencing,telemedicine, HDTV, distance learning and where high speed data transfer is required.ATM technology integrates voice, data and video at the same time. ATM uses fixed size packetscalled cells of 55 bytes in length. ATM network is a high speed circuit switched network that iscapable of transferring one million signals using ATM protocol. ATM is a connection orientedtechnology in which logical connections are established for the data communication. ATM isimplemented in the WAN and telecommunication sectors. Small data cells are used forcommunication and ATM is designed for high speed and high traffic networks. ATM cells allowvoice, data and video transfer at the same time. ATM operates on the data link layer of the OSImodel and it uses UTP/STP, fiber optic or air as a communication medium.

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