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Op-Amp Experiment

Op-Amp Experiment

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Published by Arooj Mukarram
operational amplifier, physics experiments, undergraduate physics, opamp experiment
operational amplifier, physics experiments, undergraduate physics, opamp experiment

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Published by: Arooj Mukarram on Oct 08, 2011
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07/18/2013

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OP-AMP EXPERIMENTS
INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS
An
integrated circuit
is defined as a combination of interconnected circuitelements inseparably associated on or within a continuous semiconductor (oftencalled a chip).A number of important electronic devices, such as diodes and transistors, areseparate devices that are individually packaged and interconnected in a circuitwith other devices to form a complete, functional unit. Such devices are referredto as
discrete components
. In an IC, however, many transistors, diodes,resistors and capacitors are fabricated on a single tiny chip of semiconductormaterial and packaged in a single case to form a functional circuit. An IC is thustreated as a
single device
.
Operational amplifiers
 
(Op-amps)
are integrated electronic devices. In ourlaboratory course, we will be concerned with what the circuit does more from anexternal viewpoint than from an internal, component-level viewpoint.The
operational amplifier
is an electronic circuit element designed to beused with other circuit elements to perform a specified signal processingoperation. It is basically a
solid-state device
with several circuits within a singlepackage capable of sensing and amplifying dc and ac input signals. (
Solid state
 gets its name from path that electrical signals take through solid pieces ofsemiconductor material. Prior to the use of solid state devices, electricity passedthrough various elements inside of a heated vacuum tube.)Early op-amps were constructed with vacuum tubes and worked with high
voltages. Today’s op
-amps are linear integrated circuits that use relatively low dcsupply voltage and are reliable and inexpensive.
1.
 
OP-AMP BASICS
 
SYMBOL AND TERMINALS
The
schematic diagram for a standard op-amp
is represented as a triangle asshown in Figure 1.1.The inverting input is represented by a minus sign. The voltage at this input willcause the output voltage to be inverted by180°. The non-inverting input is
 
represented by a plus sign. The voltage at this input will cause the voltage at theoutput to be in phase. The output terminal is at the apex of the triangle. Powersupply leads are shown above and below the triangle. The dual (±) power supplyconnections enable the output to swing both positive and negative. These dcvoltages must always be connected even though they may not be indicated on aschematic diagram. Other leads coming out of the op-amp may be used forfrequency compensation or nulling components. These leads are also left off theschematic symbol for simplicity. Thus the simplified standard op-amp symbol is:
CIRCUIT FUNCTION OF THE OP-AMP
The circuit function of the op-amp is that it senses the difference between voltagesignals applied at its two input terminals (v
non-in
- v
in
), multiply this by a number A(or A
v
, called the differential gain or voltage gain) and cause the resulting voltageA(v
non-in
 –
v
in
) to appear at the output terminal.
THE IDEAL AND PRACTICAL OP-AMP
 To illustrate what an op-amp is, we consider its ideal characteristics. A practicalop-amp, of course, falls short of these ideal standards, but it is much easier tounderstand and analyze the device from an ideal point of view.Characteristics of an ideal op-amp are:
Infinite voltage gain and infinite bandwidth
Infinite input impedance (open) so that it does not load the driving source
Zero output impedanceThese characteristics are illustrated in Figure 1.3.Although modern IC op-amps approach parameter values that can be treated asideal in many cases, the ideal device can never be made. Any device haslimitations, and the IC op-amp is no exception. Op-amps have both voltage andcurrent limitations. Peak to peak output voltage, for example, is also limited byinternal restrictions such as power dissipation and component ratings.Characteristics of a practical op-amp are:
 
Very high input impedance, which produces negligible current at the inputs
Very high voltage gain, which is useful for amplifying very small signals
Very low output impedance, so that it is affected very little by other circuitloadsThese characteristics are illustrated in Figure 1.4.
INTERNAL BOLCK DIAGRAM OF AN OP-AMP
A typical op-amp is made up of three types of amplifier circuits as shown in blockdiagram (Figure 1.5).
THE 741 OP AMP
The
741 operational amplifier
is one of the commonly used integrated-circuitop-amps. It has eight pin connections as shown in Figure 1.6.

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