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Cyber Security_birgitta Jonsdottir Iceland

Cyber Security_birgitta Jonsdottir Iceland

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Published by Birgitta Jonsdottir

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Published by: Birgitta Jonsdottir on Oct 09, 2011
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Introduction1. The ongoing information revolution poses a series of political, cultural,economic as well as national security challenges. Changing communications,computing and information storage patterns are challenging notions such asprivacy, identity, national borders and societal structures. The profound chang-es inherent in this revolution are also changing the way we look at security, of-ten in unanticipated ways, and demanding innovative responses. It is said thatbecause of this revolution, the time it takes to cross the Atlantic has shrunk to30 milliseconds, compared with 30 minutes for ICBMs and several monthsgoing by boat.1 Meanwhile, a whole new family of actors are emerging on theinternational stage, such as virtual “hactivist” groups. These could potentially
lead to a new class of international conicts between these groups and nationstates, or even to conicts between exclusively virtual entities.
2. One of the most fundamental characteristics of the Information Age is itsability to connect. In this regard, the main tool is the Internet and the fact thatits storage capacity is currently doubling every 12 months. Interconnectivity
is now central to government ofces, critical infrastructures, telecommunica
tions, nance, transportation, and emergency services. Even where commu
nication and data exchanges are not routed through the Internet, they still, inmany cases, use the same bre optic cables.
Introduction1. Hacktivists is not new. First hacktivists groups emerged in the 1995. It isimportant to understand the root for new found popularity for hacktivism.Hacktivism is a new form of protest and those that protest in that way should
have the same right to do so as in the ofine world. Not all protesters join pro
-test because of same ideology.From Wikipedia: Hacktivism is a controversial term, and since it covers arange of passive to active and non-violent to violent activities, it can often beconstrued as cyberterrorism. It was coined to describe how electronic directaction might work toward social change by combining programming skillswith critical thinking. Others use it as practically synonymous with malicious,destructive acts that undermine the security of the Internet as a technical, eco-nomic, and political platform.2. Interconnectivity is also central to culture, openness and education.
3. Despite its inherent advantages, this dependence on information technologyhas also made state and society much more vulnerable to attacks such as com-puter intrusions, scrambling software programs, undetected insiders within
computer rewalls, or cyber terrorists. The Internet is inherently insecure asit was designed as a benign enterprise of information exchange, a decentral
-ized patchwork of systems that ensures relative anonymity. It is ill-equippedto trace perpetrators or to prevent them from abusing the intrinsic openness
of the cyber domain. In this context, the key national security dilemma of the
Information Age is how to create an effective and transparent government,which, at the same time, is also able to protect its citizens and vital national in-
terests. Furthermore, in this Information Age, the North Atlantic Alliance faces
a dilemma of how to maintain cohesion in the environment where sharinginformation with Allies increases information security risks, but where with-holding it undermines the relevance and capabilities of the Alliance.
4. It is a critical time for the NATO Parliamentary Assembly (NATO PA) to
discuss cyber security, as the Alliance is working on a comprehensive cyberstrategy to be announced in June 2011. The Rapporteur hopes that some of the
questions discussed in this report will be addressed by this forthcoming NATO
document.5. This report will focus on three facets of the linkage between InformationAge and national security. First, it will discuss the changing notion of secrecyin international relations. This issue was brought to prominence by the so-
called “Cablegate” scandal. While the publication of classied diplomatic cor
-respondence was not a result of a cyber attack, it is nevertheless directly linkedto the information revolution: remarkable advances in data storage technologyallowed one person to easily download colossal volumes of data that has takenthe print media months, and possibly years, to digest and to publish.3. Insiders: Does the rapporteur mean intruders? Insider is a spy or a mole butintruder someone that hacks in a system.Who has the legitimacy to claim who is a cyber terrorist and who isn’t?
The Nato security system is a state of the art system that has not been the
victim of any serious leaks. The reason for leaks has more to do with the cul-ture of everything being secret by default rather then the systems. We need toreverse it into culture of transparency Respect for the Freedom of Information
Act (FOIA) in the USA would for example eliminate the need for leaks.It is important for NATO member states nations to upgrade their freedom of information, expression and speech laws in order to ensure the transparency
mentioned in this article.Lumping security and government together convolutes any debate of transpar-ency. This is a faulty premise and is a different legal circumstance in everycountry. The value and criticality of transparency is ignored. Only the mis-uses are mentioned. These “misuses” are all aspects of a free and open society
and not a sufcient argument against transparency.4. See my rst amendment to the draft report.
5. This issue was brought to light prior to Cablegate: with the release of theAfghan and Iraq war logs.The problem is not only because of different technology but also the fact thatmany more people have access to the documents as a result of 911.
6. If the Rapporteur targets Anonymous when he writes about the nega-tive effect of hacker groups attacking “those who do not share their politicalview”, then he should use the word “protest” rather than “attack”. FurthermoreAnonymous always protested in retaliation to actions against itself or against
people or organizations that the Judiciary has failed to defend (Wikileaks,Bradley Manning, Scientology’s victims etc).7. No comment8. No comment9. No comment10. No comment6. Second, the explosion of Internet usage is creating the phenomenon we re
fer to as “digital (h)activism”. Social media and other Internet-based commu
-nities are creating new, ad hoc and cross-border allegiances that can manifest
themselves in a variety of positive (reinforcing civil societies in authoritariancountries) and negative (empowering hacker groups that attack those who donot share their political worldview) ways.
7. Third, the report will discuss the challenge of direct cyber threats against
states and, in particular, NATO’s role in cyber defence as one of the principaltopics for the Euro-Atlantic community, particularly in the wake of the LisbonSummit.8. The report will not address the specic issue of cyber crime. While cyber
theft and child pornography are issues of grave concern for the internationalcommunity, they do not have direct national security implications and are ad-
dressed by a number of other international organizations, including the UN,EU, OSCE, OECD and G8. The Council of Europe Convention on Cyber
-crime – which requires its parties to criminalise a number of activities in cyberspace relating to infringements of copyright, computer-related fraud and child
pornography – is a particularly noteworthy initiative that has yet to be ratiedby several NATO member states.
9. This report also represents the continuing effort by the Committee on the
Civil Dimension of Security to discuss the issue of critical infrastructure pro
-tection within the Alliance. Cyber technologies are not only key enablers forsystems such as energy generation or transport, but can themselves be consid-ered as critical national infrastructure.
10. The report also builds upon the contribution by other NATO PA Commit
tees, particularly the 2009 Sub-Committee on Future Security and DefenceCapabilities report “NATO and Cyber Defence” [173 DSCFC 09 E bis] bySverre Myrli (Norway) and the 2007 Science and Technology Committeereport “Transforming the Future of Warfare: Network-Enabled Capabilitiesand Unmanned Systems” [175 STC 07 E bis] by Sen. Pierre Claude Nolin(Canada).

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