AMOL P. SHENDE
1. Overview of six sigma\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026 3
2. Process\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026 5
3. Statistic Definition of Six Sigma\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026 9
4. Six Sigma for Services\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026 10
5. Cost of Quality\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026 12
6. Launching Six Sigma\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026 14
7. Implementation of Six Sigma\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026 18
8. Case Study\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026\u2026.21
Six Sigma aims to give a basic idea of Six Sigma, its application, scope and origin.
However, Six Sigma is a complex concept involving principles of statistics and
process dynamics. We shall define Six Sigma only later once you have an
understanding of the principles.
A statistical concept that says that a process is operating so well that it allows for
less than 3.4 defects per million opportunities. The Greek letter\u00f3 in statistics
measures the variation of all the outputs in a process.
If a process allows for outputs to be acceptable only if they fall within Six Sigma or
Six standard deviations from the average for all outputs in the process, then you
have a process that is essentially delivering no defective outputs at all.
Six Sigma is a long-term strategy and takes 3 to 5 years to implement. It is applicable to all types of industries and companies, be they manufacturing or services.
The objective of the `Six Sigma' approach is to move towards zero defect level. It
encompasses all facets of business, such as planning, operations, maintenance,
delivery, and quality, which can lead to customer dissatisfaction.
Six Sigma is based on a foundation of Metrics. These metrices can be organizational
objectives (example On-Time delivery), departmental objectives (such as Cycle-time
reduction) or process objectives (such as Orders processed). It might be worthwhile
linking this concept with ISO 9001-2000, which has a strong inclination for Metrices.
It creates a better process by eliminating opportunities for defects even before they
can occur. This has a direct impact on the bottom line in terms of:
1. Reduced costs
2. Improved customer service
3. Waste elimination
When we say a process is `Six Sigma', we are saying that it is the best in its class.
Such a level of capability will result in having only something like 3 to 4
nonconformancesin a million opportunities.
In a Jam manufacturing unit, the nozzle filling up the bottles often fills either excess
or less than the specified quantity. In the former case, jam over flows out of the
bottles thus soiling the bottles as well as the conveyor belt. For bottles that have a
lesser quantity of jam, it is poured manually into the bottles, and in this process too
the result is sticky bottles. To clean the bottles, hot water has to be sprayed to avoid
damaging the bottles that contained hot jam.
Thus we see that a single error often goes unnoticed or is not given much
importance. But when all the possible errors that exist in a system are considered,
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