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Modulation of Card 461

Modulation of Card 461

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Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48 (4) : 461\u2013465
*Corresponding Author
INTRODUCTION
Yogic techniques are known to improve
one\u2019s overall performance and
work
capacity.
Following
the
study
of

Bhattacharya & Krishnaswami (1) in which they observed that yoga exercises do not produce marked effect on physical and physiological performance, there have been several reports on the beneficial effects of yoga training on physiological functions.

Muralidhara & Ranganathan (2) have
reported
an
improvement
in

cardiac recovery index after 10 week yoga training programme. Raju et al (3) have found a significant increase in maximal work output and a significant increase in oxygen consumption per unit work after yoga training. Bera & Rajapurkar (4) have reported a significant improvement in cardiovascular endurance and anaerobic power as a result of yoga training. However,

MODULATION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE TO
EXERCISE BY YOGA TRAINING
MADANMOHAN*, KAVIRAJA UDUPA,
ANANDA BALAYOGI BHAVANANI,
CHETAN CHINMAYA SHATAPATHY
AND AJIT SAHAI**
Department of Physiology,
**Department of Social and Preventive Medicine,
Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education & Research (JIPMER),
Pondicherry \u2013 605 006, India
(
((
((Received on July 1, 2004
Received on July 1, 2004
Received on July 1, 2004
Received on July 1, 2004
Received on July 1, 2004)
))
))
Abstract :
Abstract :
Abstract :
Abstract :

Abstract : This study reports the effects of yoga training on cardiovascular response to exercise and the time course of recovery after the exercise. Cardiovascular response to exercise was determined by Harvard step test using a platform of 45 cm height. The subjects were asked to step up and down the platform at a rate of 30/ min for a total duration of 5 min or until fatigue, whichever was earlier. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure response to exercise were measured in supine position before exercise and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 10 minutes after the exercise. Rate-pressure product [RPP = (HR \u00d7 SP)/ 100] and double product (Do P = HR \u00d7 MP), which are indices of work done by the heart were also calculated. Exercise produced a significant increase in HR, systolic pressure, RPP & DoP and a significant decrease in diastolic pressure. After two months of yoga training, exercise- induced changes in these parameters were significantly reduced. It is concluded that after yoga training a given level of exercise leads to a milder cardiovascular response, suggesting better exercise tolerance.

Key words :
Key words :
Key words :
Key words :
Key words : yoga training
Harvard step test
rate-pressure product
double product
462 Madanmohan et al
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48(4)

Balasubramanian & Pansare (5) have reported that yoga training produces a significant decrease in anaerobic power. Exercise stress testing is a valuable tool for evaluating physical fitness and cardio- respiratory status. The effect of physical training on exercise tolerance is well known. However, there are limited studies on the effect of yoga training on cardiovascular response to stress. Moreover, there is paucity of information on the effect of yoga training on the time course of the cardiovascular response following exercise. In view of this, the present study was planned with the objective of determining the effect of yoga training on the cardiovascular response to step test and its time course after the exercise in normal young volunteers.

METHODS

Twenty one normal boys (age : 17\u201319 years) were recruited for the present study. Those having a history of active sports training or yoga practice, medical illness such as tuberculosis, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, bronchial asthma or major surgery in the recent past were excluded from the study. After explaining the design and purpose of the study, informed consent was obtained from them. Clearance was obtained from Institute Ethical Committee.

A few days before actual recording, the
subjects
were
familiarized
with

the laboratory environment and experimental procedure. On the day of the test, the subjects reported at our laboratory in the morning, two hours after a light breakfast. The laboratory temperature was maintained at 27 \u00b1 1\u00b0C. After 15 minutes of supine rest, heart rate (HR) and right brachial blood pressure (BP) was recorded with non- invasive semi-automatic blood pressure monitor using the oscillometric method

(Press-Mate BP 8800, Colin Corporation, Japan). Pulse pressure (PP = SP \u2013 DP), mean pressure (MP = DP + PP/ 3) and rate- pressure product [RPP = (HR \u00d7 SP)/ 100] and double product (Do P = HR \u00d7 MP) were calculated for each recording. Three BP recordings at one-minute intervals were taken and the lowest of these values was included for calculation. Cardiovascular response to exercise was determined by Harvard step test using a platform of 45 cm height (6). The subjects were asked to step up and down the platform at a rate of 30/ min for a total duration of 5 min or until fatigue, whichever was earlier. HR and BP response to exercise was measured in supine position before exercise and at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 10 minutes after the exercise.

The subjects were taughty o g a s a n s and
pranayams for two weeks. Then they

practised the same under our direct supervision, daily for 45 minutes, for a total duration of 2 months. They o g a s a n s and

pranayams taught were: talasan, utkatasan, trikonasan, ardha-matsyendrasan, bakasan, pavanmuktasan,

navasan,

noukasan, matsyasan, pashchimottanasan, halasan, bhujangasan, shalabhasan, sarvangasan, shavasan,

mukh-bhastrika,
mahat-yoga
pranayam,
nadi
shuddhi
and
savitri
pranayam.

The cardiovascular response to exercise was measured before the training and again at the end of the 2 months of study period. The data was analysed using Student\u2019s paired \u2018t\u2019 test to compare the pre and post- training values. A p value of less than 0.05 was accepted as indicating significant difference between the compared values.

RESULTS
Results are given in Table I. Yoga
Indian J Physiol Pharmacol 2004; 48(4)
Yoga Training and Exercise 463
TABLEI:Effe
ctofyogatra
iningoncard
iovascularr
esponsetoex
erciseandpo
st\u2013exercise
recovery.
HR(beats/mi
n)SP(mmHg)D
P(mmHg)PP(m
mHg)MP(mmHg
)RPP(units)
DoP(units)
BeforeAfter
BeforeAfter
BeforeAfter
BeforeAfter
BeforeAfter
BeforeAfter
BeforeAfter
Basal71.336
5.71116.141
13.1968.766
2.5747.3847
.8684.1978.
2482.6271.4
86010.67514
7.52
\u00b11.11\u00b11.13*
*\u00b11.27\u00b11.34
**\u00b10.97\u00b11.0
2***\u00b11.29\u00b11
.04\u00b10.90\u00b10.
94***\u00b11.84\u00b1
1.34***\u00b1123
.78\u00b1120.20*
**
Afterstepte
stAfterstep
test
Afterstepte
stAfterstep
testAfterst
eptest
1min141.671
16.19168.43
151.1461.43
59.90107.00
90.9596.768
9.81238.191
75.1413729.
5210445.43
\u00b12.47
\u2021
\u00b12.46***
\u2021
\u00b12.52
\u2021
\u00b12.62***
\u2021
\u00b10.95
\u2021
\u00b11.06*
\u2020
\u00b12.37
\u2021
\u00b12.67
\u2021
\u00b11.20
\u2021
\u00b11.27
\u2021
\u00b15.92
\u2021
\u00b14.62***
\u2021
\u00b1349.3
\u2021
\u00b1278.05***
\u2021
2min118.381
05.67156.57
143.1061.62
57.8192.958
5.2992.1485
.90184.4315
0.9510941.4
39079.71
\u00b11.83\u00b11.66*
**\u00b12.54\u00b12.2
9***\u00b10.81\u00b10
.83**\u00b12.91\u00b1
2.76*\u00b11.42\u00b1
0.71***\u00b15.2
7\u00b13.47***\u00b13
10.22\u00b1166.1
1***
3min110.291
02.14146.00
134.3862.19
58.1982.957
5.9089.5083
.10161.2413
6.869922.76
8492.38
\u00b12.33\u00b11.49*
*\u00b12.66\u00b11.57
***\u00b10.92\u00b10.
66***\u00b12.47\u00b1
1.69**\u00b10.63
\u00b10.70***\u00b15.
92\u00b12.83***\u00b1
341.43\u00b1157.
14***
4min107.811
00.00138.00
129.6260.19
58.9577.817
0.6785.6782
.10149.0512
9.299268.76
8217.10
\u00b11.90\u00b11.62*
*\u00b12.98\u00b11.58
*\u00b11.43\u00b10.55
\u00b12.66\u00b11.66*
\u00b11.64\u00b10.64*
\u00b15.37\u00b12.81*
*\u00b1304.38\u00b116
6.31**
5min105.909
9.19132.571
22.3862.386
2.1070.1960
.2985.4381.
95140.62121
.199082.058
133.10
\u00b11.89\u00b11.78*
*\u00b12.47\u00b11.52
***\u00b11.07\u00b10.
56\u00b12.06\u00b11.5
4***\u00b11.32\u00b10
.66*\u00b14.86\u00b12
.97**\u00b1281.7
1\u00b1169.22**
7min103.009
6.00125.241
15.1464.956
2.6760.2952
.4884.7679.
76129.10110
.248753.677
669.81
\u00b11.58\u00b11.43*
**\u00b12.08\u00b11.5
2***\u00b10.64\u00b10
.89\u00b11.71\u00b11.
55**\u00b11.04\u00b10
.90***\u00b13.82
\u00b12.56***\u00b122
3.39\u00b1169.51
***
10min101.57
92.57120.00
110.9567.24
63.4352.764
7.5284.4878
.81121.6210
2.438594.14
7310.10
\u00b11.65
\u2021
\u00b11.45***
\u2021
\u00b11.47
\u2021
\u00b11.02***\u00b10.
56
+\u00b10.83***\u00b11
.28
\u2020
\u00b10.98**\u00b10.7
4\u00b10.76***\u00b13
.06
\u2021
\u00b12.17***
\u2021
\u00b1192.3
\u2021
\u00b1165.86***
\u2021
Basal:befor
esteptest;B
efore:befor
eyogatraini
ng;After:af
teryogatrai
ning;HR:hea
rtrate;SP:s
ystolicpres
sure;DP:dia
stolic
pressure;PP
:pulsepress
ure;MP:mean
pressure;RP
P:rate-pres
sureproduct
;DoP:double
product.
Valuesareex
pressedasme
an\u00b1SEMfor21
subjects.
*P<0.05;**P
<0.01;***P<
0.001bypair
ed\u2018t\u2019testbe
tweenpreand
posttrainin
gvalues.
+P<0.05;
\u2020P<0.01;
\u2021P<0.001byp
aired\u2018t\u2019tes
tbetweenbas
alandpost-e
xercisevalu
es.

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