In most of the practical situations single phone line is shared between many users. (Ex. In different locations of a house, small office, etc) Normally when number of phones are in parallel, when ring signal occurs, ring signal can be heard in all the phones. Except one person all the others will find that the call is not for them. It is also possible that the phones will not work due to the high load. The conversation secrecy is also another problem in this type of parallel connection because, when two subscribers are in a conversation, if another subscriber lifts another receiver (parallel connected) he also can listen to the conversation. The aim of our project was to find solutions for these types of problems.
Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) technique is used to separate different channels of subscribers, therefore different frequency bands (Channels) are used. A block diagram of the system is given in the figure 1.1
When an outside subscriber (in the PSTN) dials the number corresponds to the system, he is first connected the control unit. Each parallel phone in the system is assigned an extension number and the subscriber should press the extension number of the required phone within 10 second after he is connected. If the extension number is not pressed within 10 seconds, the call will be disconnected.
If the extension number is pressed, the control unit identifies the phone corresponds to that number and it gives ring signal only to that phone. If the call is not answered within 10 seconds, it will be automatically disconnected.
When one phone in the system, is connected to a call, if another subscriber (in the system) wants to call another subscriber within the system, a different frequency channel will be assigned for him and that call also can be connected without making interference to the other connected calls.
The control unit responsible for controlling all the channels and giving ring signal to each phone separately. A detailed illustration of the control unit is given from the following figure.
As mentioned in the introduction, the external telephone line comes from the PSTN is connected to the control unit. When an external subscriber dials the number which is assigned to the system, he will be fist connected to the control unit. To achieve this target, ring signal provided by the exchange should be identified and \u201coff hook\u201d condition (the outside subscriber should feel that the call was answered by the system) should be created.
Under normal condition, the voltage across the telephone subscriber cable is approximately about -48V (provided by the exchange). When a call is connected (off hook) it falls to around 10V. Therefore, by short circuiting the telephone line through a resister (around 1k\u2126) will be identified by the exchange, as the call was answered (off hook condition). To ring a particular phone the exchange provide about -120V AC signal to that particular line. We used this condition to identify the ring signal and connect the outside subscriber to our control unit.
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