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Midterm 1 Solved Problems

# Midterm 1 Solved Problems

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12/31/2012

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Solved Problems
1.

(a) What is the size of an atom?(b)

What is the velocity of an electron in the first Bohr orbit of an Hydrogen atom?Solutiona)

You can estimate size of an atom asOr you can calculate Bohr radius that gives size of an atom:quantization of angular momentumForce between proton and electron. Eliminating velocity between equations weobtain:For n=1; substituting:b)

Quantization of angular momentum yields:Compare to the speed of light:2.

Calculate frequency and energy of the photons, in eV, having a wavelength:a)

Microwave 3.0 cmc)

Visible light range 500 nmd)

x-ray range 5.0 nme)

Gamma ray 1.0 pmSolutionEnergy of the photon is given by ; c=3a)

ORThink!! Which of the wave is more energetic? What is the energy of FM radiosignals? Why are Gamma rays dangerous??You can solve the remaining part of the problem.3.

Radiation has been detected from space that is characteristic of an ideal radiator at
(Relic from “Big
-
Bang”). For this temperature at what wavelength does

the Planck distribution peak? In what part of the electromagnetic spectrum is thiswavelength?Solution
Wien’s displacement law state
maximum value of the wavelength of radiation from anobject:This wavelength is in the microwave part of the spectrum.4.

A clean nickel surface is exposed to light of wavelength of 235nm. What is themaximum speed of the photoelectrons emitted from this surface. The work functionfor nickel is .SolutionUsing the relation5.

The threshold of dark-adapted (scotopic) vision is at acentralwavelength of 500 nm. If light with this intensity and wavelength enters the eye whenthe pupil is open to its maximum diameter of 8.5 mm, how many photons per secondenter theeye?Solution:Scotopic is means; energy of the radiation per second per meter square.We can calculate area of pupil and then power of the light entering the eye.Power of the light entering the eye:This is the energy of the light entering to the ey eper second. We calculate energy of eachphoton:Number of photon per second:6.

A beam of 0.68-nm photons undergoes Compton scattering from free electrons. What
are the energy and momentum of the photons that emerge at a 45° angle with respect
to the incident beam?Solution :Using the Compton shift formula, then we can writeTherefore the energy of the photon isMomentum of the photon is:7.

Calculate the de Broglie wavelength for an electron that has kinetic energy (a) 50.0 eVand (b) 50.0 keV (ignore relativistic effects).

Solution :The de Broglie wavelength is , where p is the linear momentum. If relativistic effects areignored, then one can easily relate the momentum to so(a) If and the particle is an electron,then(b) For 50.0 keV electrons,8.

A hydrogen atom is in its first excited state (n = 2). Using the Bohr theory of the atom,calculate (a) the radius of the orbit, (b) the linear momentum of the electron, (c) theangularmomentum of the electron, (d) the kinetic energy, (e) the potential energy, and (f) the totalenergy.Solution :(a)

See problem 1.(b)

And (c)(c)

Firstly let us calculate angular accelerationThen we can calculate p:(d)

Kinetic Energy(e)

Potential Energy:(f)

Total Energy:9.

Write down time depen
dent Schrödinger equation.
. Time dependent Schrödinger equation can be
written as:10.

Show that
is the solution of the Schrödinger equation for
. (Solution: For we can writeSubstitute given wave function into
the Schrödinger equation