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1.3 bohrmodel

1.3 bohrmodel

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Published by: Çağdaş Demirci on Oct 09, 2011
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Bohr Atom
In 1911, Rutherford introduced a new model of the atom in which cloud of negatively chargedelectrons surrounding a small, dense, positively charged nucleus. This model is result of experimental data and Rutherford naturally considered a planetary-model atom. The laws of classical mechanics (i.e. the Larmor formula, power radiated by a charged particle as itaccelerates.), predict that the electron will release electromagnetic radiation while orbiting anucleus. Because the electron would lose energy, it would gradually spiral inwards, collapsinginto the nucleus. This atom model is disastrous, because it predicts that all atoms are unstable.To overcome this difficulty, Niels Bohr proposed, in 1913, what is now called the
 Bohr modelof the atom
. He suggested that electrons could only have certain
classical
motions:1.
 
The electrons can only travel in special orbits: at a certain discrete set of distancesfrom the nucleus with specific energies.2.
 
The electrons of an atom revolve around the nucleus in orbits. These orbits areassociated with definite energies and are also called energy shells or energy levels.Thus, the electrons do not continuously lose energy as they travel in a particular orbit.They can only gain and lose energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another,absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation with a frequency
ν
determined by theenergy difference of the levels according to the
Planck relation
:3.
 
Kinetic energy of the electron in the orbit is related to the frequency of the motion of the electron:For a circular orbit the angular momentum
 L
is restricted to be an integer multiple of afixed unit:where
n
= 1, 2, 3, ... is called the principal quantum number. The lowest value of 
n
is 1; thisgives a smallest possible orbital radius of 0.0529 nm known as the Bohr radius.Bohr's condition, that the angular momentum is an integer multiple of 
ħ
was laterreinterpreted by de Broglie as a standing wave condition: the electron is described by a waveand a whole number of wavelengths must fit along the circumference of the electron's orbit:The Bohr model gives almost exact results only for a system where two charged points orbiteach other at speeds much less than that of light.To calculate the orbits requires two assumptions:1.
 
(Classical Rule)The electron is held in a circular orbit by electrostatic attraction. Thecentripetal force is equal to the Coulomb force.It also determines the total energy at any radius:
 
The total energy is negative and inversely proportional to
. This means that it takesenergy to pull the orbiting electron away from the proton. For infinite values of 
, theenergy is zero, corresponding to a motionless electron infinitely far from the proton.2.
 
(Quantum rule) The angular momentum so that the allowed orbitradius at any n is:The energy of the
n
-th level is determined by the radius:An electron in the lowest energy level of hydrogen (
n
= 1) therefore has 13.6 eV less energythan a motionless electron infinitely far from the nucleus.The combination of natural constants in the energy formula is called the Rydberg energy (
 R
E
):This expression is clarified by interpreting it in combinations which form more natural units.We define is rest mass energy of the electron (511 keV) and is the finestructure constant then
Bohr Atom and Rydberg formula
The Rydberg formula, which was known empirically before Bohr's formula, is now in Bohr'stheory seen as describing the energies of transitions or quantum jumps between one orbitalenergy level, and another. When the electron moves from one energy level to another, aphoton is emitted. Using the derived formula for the different 'energy' levels of hydrogen onemay determine the 'wavelengths' of light that a hydrogen atom can emit.The energy of a photon emitted by a hydrogen atom is given by the difference of twohydrogen energy levels:where
n
 f 
is the final energy level, and
n
i
is the initial energy level.Since the energy of a photon is the wavelength of the photon given off is given byThis is known as the Rydberg formula, and the Rydberg constant R is
 R
 E 
hc
. This formulawas known in the nineteenth century to scientists studying spectroscopy, but there was notheoretical explanation for this form or a theoretical prediction for the value of R, until Bohr.In fact, Bohr's derivation of the Rydberg constant, as well as the concomitant agreement of Bohr's formula with experimentally observed spectral lines of the Lyman (
n
 f 
= 1), Balmer (
n
 f 
 

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