In 1911, Rutherford introduced a new model of the atom in which cloud of negatively chargedelectrons surrounding a small, dense, positively charged nucleus. This model is result of experimental data and Rutherford naturally considered a planetary-model atom. The laws of classical mechanics (i.e. the Larmor formula, power radiated by a charged particle as itaccelerates.), predict that the electron will release electromagnetic radiation while orbiting anucleus. Because the electron would lose energy, it would gradually spiral inwards, collapsinginto the nucleus. This atom model is disastrous, because it predicts that all atoms are unstable.To overcome this difficulty, Niels Bohr proposed, in 1913, what is now called the
Bohr modelof the atom
. He suggested that electrons could only have certain
The electrons can only travel in special orbits: at a certain discrete set of distancesfrom the nucleus with specific energies.2.
The electrons of an atom revolve around the nucleus in orbits. These orbits areassociated with definite energies and are also called energy shells or energy levels.Thus, the electrons do not continuously lose energy as they travel in a particular orbit.They can only gain and lose energy by jumping from one allowed orbit to another,absorbing or emitting electromagnetic radiation with a frequency
determined by theenergy difference of the levels according to the
Kinetic energy of the electron in the orbit is related to the frequency of the motion of the electron:For a circular orbit the angular momentum
is restricted to be an integer multiple of afixed unit:where
= 1, 2, 3, ... is called the principal quantum number. The lowest value of
is 1; thisgives a smallest possible orbital radius of 0.0529 nm known as the Bohr radius.Bohr's condition, that the angular momentum is an integer multiple of
was laterreinterpreted by de Broglie as a standing wave condition: the electron is described by a waveand a whole number of wavelengths must fit along the circumference of the electron's orbit:The Bohr model gives almost exact results only for a system where two charged points orbiteach other at speeds much less than that of light.To calculate the orbits requires two assumptions:1.
(Classical Rule)The electron is held in a circular orbit by electrostatic attraction. Thecentripetal force is equal to the Coulomb force.It also determines the total energy at any radius: