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3.5 Problems

# 3.5 Problems

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10/09/2011

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Problems on Postulates, square potentials, observables andcommutators
1.

1st postulates of quantum mechanics state that “
Each physical system is described by a
state function which determines all can be known about the system.” What is the
fundamental behaviours of the wave function?2.

How can you determine wave function of a quantum particle?(2nd postulate)3.

What is the meaning of correspondence principle?4.

What is the expectation value and eigenvalue of an operator? When they are the same?5.

How can you determine location of a particle? What is the meaning of normalizationand orthogonality.6.

Is The following statements true or false
(a)

The statefunction is always eaual to a function of time multiplied by a function of thecoordinates
(b)

In both classical and quantum mechanics , knowledge of the present state of anisolated system allows its future states to be calculated
(c)

The statefunction is always an eigenfunction of the Hamiltonian
(d)

Any linear combination of eigenfunctions of the Hamiltonian is an eigenfunction of the Hamiltonian
(e)

If the statefunction of is not an eigenfunction of the operator A, then a measurement of the property A might give a value that is not one of the eigenvalues of A
(f)

The probability density is independent of time for a stationary state
(g)

If two operators do not commute, then they cannot posses any common eigenfunctions
(h)

If two operators commute, then every eigenfunction of one must be an eigenfunctionof the other
(i)

If the operator B corresponds to a physical property of a quantum mechanical system,the statefunction must be an eigenfunction of BAnswers: (a)F, (b) T. (c) F. (d) F. (e) F. (f) T. (g) F. (h) T (I) F7.

What is the result if the operator apply on the function8.

Show that the function is eigenfunction of
.9.

Determine the commutation relation of, whereand .10.

What is the result of and , where ?11.

What is the result of ?12.

Show that and is not Hermitian operators.13.

Prove that .Solution: Using definition of commutator we can write14.

Prove that .

15.

When the particle confined infinite well potential its eigenvalues are . Whatis the eigenfunction number, or quantum number, that produces a macroscopicamount of energy, , for macroscopic values kg and ? With thatmany energy levels involved, would you see the difference between successive ones?16.

There are no forces inside the box, so the particle has to keep moving until it hits anend of box, then reflect backward until it hits the other side and so on. So, it has tocross the center of the pipe regularly. But in the energy eigenstate , the particle has zero chance of ever being found at the center () of the pipe. What doyou think?
When we examine the problem on quantum scale a particle does not have a
position, so phrases like “hits an end”, “reflect backward”, and “keep moving” are truly
meaningless. On macroscopic scales a particle may have an relatively precisely defined position, but that is only because there is uncertainty in energy.17.

A 3 dimensional cubic box of length L, has zero potential inside and infinity potentialoutside. In this case energy is given by:What is the energy of the highest occupied level in the ground state for a systems of 20non interacting electrons?In some states you obtained that the particles have the same energy value but differentwave functions. What is the name of this situation?If two particle have the same quantum numbers then is it possible to find the particlesin the same state?Table: Various one dimensional potentials
System PhysicalcorrespondencePotential Total Energies and ProbabilitydensitySignificantfeature
Zero PotentialFree particle i.e.Proton beamWave propertiesof particleInfinite squarewell potentialMoleculeconfined to boxApproximation of finite well
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.502468x
In fin ite P o ten tial W ell

Step Potential(E<V)Conductionelectron near surface of metalPenetration of excluded regionStep potential(E>V) Neutron tryingto escapenucleusPartial reflectionat potentialdiscontinuityBarrier  potential(E<V)
Α particle trying
to escapeCoulomb barrier TunnelingBarrier  potential(E>V)Electronscattering fromnegativelyionized atom No reflection atcertain energies
4 2 0 2 4 6 801234x
P o ten tial Barrier
4 2 0 2 4 6 8012345x
P o ten tial Barrier
4 2 0 2 4 6 801234x
P o ten tial Barrier
4 2 0 2 4 6 8012345x
P o ten tial Barrier

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