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Dynamic Traffic Light Control Scheme For Reducing Co2 Emissions Employing Etc Technology

Dynamic Traffic Light Control Scheme For Reducing Co2 Emissions Employing Etc Technology

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Published by ijmpict
International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Technologies ( IJMPICT )
International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Technologies ( IJMPICT )

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Published by: ijmpict on Oct 10, 2011
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International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Technologies (IJMPICT)Vol. 1, No. 1, September 2011
DOI : 10.5121/ijmpict.2011.11011
D
 YNAMIC
 T
RAFFIC
L
IGHT
C
ONTROL
S
CHEME
FORREDUCINGCO
2
EMISSIONSEMPLOYINGETCT
ECHNOLOGY 
Chunxiao LiandShigeru Shimamoto
Graduate School of Global Information and Telecommunication Studies,Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan
 A
 BSTRACT 
With theincreasinggrowth of vehiclenumbers in the world,Global warming is becoming a seriousissue. Vehicle CO
2
emissions are considered to be one of the main sources of global warming.In order toreduce vehicles CO
2
emissions, a dynamic traffic light control scheme is proposed.In the proposed scheme, we are the first to use Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) devices to obtain real time traffic flowinformation for a traffic control centre. By the proposed scheme, vehicles canpass through intersectionswith less waiting time andfewernumbers ofstops.Bysmoothing vehicle travel, CO
2
emissions can bereduced. Compared with fixed time control, the simulation results indicate that the proposed scheme hasmuch better performance:vehicle average waiting time is greatly reduced and CO
2
emissions canalsobereduced.
 K 
 EYWORDS
 ETC vehicles, dynamic traffic light control, CO
2
emissions
1.I
NTRODUCTION
Currently, the detrimental effects of air pollutants and concerns about global warming are beingincreasingly reported by the media. The global warming problem has brought many seriouslyproblems,which lead to dangerous interference with the climate system. Due to globalwarming, the ice inthePolar Regions is melting and sealevels arerising[1]. In terms of the airpollution problem, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from vehicles are considered to be one of the main contributing sourcesto global warming.To slow down the speed of our livingenvironment deterioration, reducing CO
2
emissions is becominganurgentproblem. As one of the major sources of CO
2
, vehicle exhaust emissionsarebecomingaserious issuedue to therapid increase of vehicle numbers in the world.As a result, reducingvehicle CO
2
emissions isone of useful ways toslow down the speed of our living environment deterioration.Barthet al.carried out anumberof experiments [2], theresultsof whichindicated thatshorteridlingtimeand constant-speed driving would lead tolowerCO
2
emissions. Furthermore,alowernumber of stopsand shorttimewaitingattraffic red lightsarethe most common reasonsfor engine idling. Thus, minimizingwaiting time as well as avoidingunnecessary stops can beused to reduceCO
2
emissions. In fact, traffic light control playsaveryimportant role inreducing vehicle waiting time andthenumber of stops.Therefore,the problembecomes one of how to control traffic lightsto smoothvehicletravel.
 
International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Technologies (IJMPICT)Vol. 1, No. 1, September 2011
2
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) is acombinationof tools such as software, hardware,traffic engineering concepts, and communication technology,whichcanallbe integrated inorder to be applied to the transportation system to improve its efficiency and safety [1].Recently, with the development of ITS, more and more traffic controlschemes are designedbased on ITS technology to save fuel consumption and reduce CO
2
emissions.Masszen et al. have proposed an economical and environmentally friendly geocast (EEFG)protocol for minimizing vehicle fuel consumption and emissions in [2]. In this protocol, basedon the vehicular network,theauthors introduced a recommended speed calculation for reducingvehicle stopping times.Throughthis scheme, vehicle idling CO
2
emissions can be reduced tosome extent.However, vehicle CO
2
emissions arenot only relatedtostop times, but also relatedtovehicle travel time, especially vehicle engine idling time. In [2],theauthorsonlyconsideredreducingvehicle stop times, and paid little attention to reducingvehicle waiting time. In otherwords, [2]doesnot referencevehicle travel time,which can reduce vehicle waiting time whenapproaching intersections.Aleksandaret al.'s contribution in[5]is as follows: traffic light timings are optimized for sevenoptimization objective functions to find the lowest fuel consumption and
CO
2
emissionslevels.As well,in[8],Solomon et al. used a model-based control approach to reduce emissions whilestill improving traffic flow. However,neither[3]nor[4]gavedetails about how toobtainrealtime road traffic flow information when usingproposedalgorithmto control traffic flows.As one of most popular applications of ITS, Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) technology[5]hasbecome a mature technology thatiswidely used in all over the world. It takes advantage of the communication between inter-vehicle devices (On Board Unit (OBU)) and roadside devices(Road Side Unit (RSU)) to realize highway road pricingwithnon-stop passingoftoll gatesbyvehicles.Communicationbetween OBUandRSUis based on the Dedicated Short RangeCommunications (DSRC) technology.Fig.1 shows the process of automatic toll charging forETC vehicles.
  5  0  0Y e  n
Figure 1.ETCHighwayCharging ProcessIn our previous work[6], based on the ETC technology, we employed a decision tree basedtraffic light control algorithm to control traffic lightsand allowmore vehiclestopassthroughthe intersections with less waiting time. The simulation results turned out to be very promising.However, weonlyevaluated theproposed scheme in a single intersection scenario and did notconsider the cooperation between adjacent intersections, and the traffic control algorithm alsoneeded to be improved. Thus, this paper is the follow-uptothe previous work in[6].In thispaper, we improved the traffic control algorithm and deployed it in a real road network map.
 
International Journal of Managing Public Sector Information and Communication Technologies (IJMPICT)Vol. 1, No. 1, September 2011
3
As part of the current study, we propose an ETC based traffic light control scheme for reducingvehicle CO
2
emissions; also,road traffic flow information can be obtained by wirelesscommunication between the ETC vehicles and the traffic lights, whichareused to realizedetectingofroad traffic flow information in real time.Byreducing vehicle waiting time andimprovingthenon-stop rate for passing intersections, vehicle travel can be smoothed, whichleadsto the reduction of CO
2
emissions.
2.P
ROPOSED
S
CHEME
2.1.System Module
To realize dynamic traffic lights control, road traffic flow information must be obtained asaccurately and quickly as possible. Here, we use wireless communications between vehicles andtraffic lights to obtain road traffic information. The proposed system module is shown inFig.2.Figure2.System ModuleThe system module consistsof five sub-modules: Traffic Flow Detection Module (TFDM),Traffic Light Control Module (TLCM), Traffic Flow Information Process Module (TFPM),Communication Module (CM),and Road Traffic Flow Information Sharing Module (RTFISM).Each sub-module has its special function for the whole system. We will give the detaildescriptions of each sub-module in the following.
2.1.1.
Traffic Flow Detection Module
The purpose of the TFDM is to obtain road traffic flow information in real time. This moduleconsistsof two sub-modules:ETC based Road Traffic Flow Detection Module (ERTFDM) andAdjacent Intersection Outgoing Flow Detection Module (AIOFDM).Theroad trafficinformationcomes from two sources:1)from the roadsthatconnecttothe current intersection,and2)from the adjacent intersections.(1) ETC based Road Traffic Flow Detection ModuleAssume that each intersection has its own traffic control centre, and suppose all vehicleshaveinstalled ETC OBU devices;thus,the road traffic flow information can be obtained by wirelesscommunicationbetween ETC vehicles and traffic lights. The detailsof the detection processareshown inFig.3.InFig.3, suppose each traffic lighthasan antenna (RSU)installedon it, andthatthe max radiodistance is R. Only the vehicles which are in the area oftheradio distance can communicatewith the light directly.

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