Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
6Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci

The Notebooks of Leonardo Da Vinci

Ratings: (0)|Views: 44|Likes:
Published by api-3710332

More info:

Published by: api-3710332 on Oct 15, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

03/18/2014

pdf

text

original

The\ue000 Notebooks\ue000 of\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 Da\ue000 Vinci
Volume\ue000 1
Translated\ue000 by\ue000 Jean\ue000 Paul\ue000 Richter

1888
http://esnips.com/web/ebooks4u
PREFACE.

A\ue000 singular\ue000 fatality\ue000 has\ue000 ruled\ue000 the\ue000 destiny\ue000 of\ue000 nearly\ue000 all\ue000 the\ue000 most
famous\ue000 of\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 da\ue000 Vinci's\ue000 works.\ue000 Two\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 three\ue000 most\ue000 important
were\ue000 never\ue000 completed,\ue000 obstacles\ue000 having\ue000 arisen\ue000 during\ue000 his\ue000 life-time,
which\ue000 obliged\ue000 him\ue000 to\ue000 leave\ue000 them\ue000 unfinished;\ue000 namely\ue000 the\ue000 Sforza
Monument\ue000 and\ue000 the\ue000 Wall-painting\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 Battle\ue000 of\ue000 Anghiari,\ue000 while\ue000 the
third--the\ue000 picture\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 Last\ue000 Supper\ue000 at\ue000 Milan--has\ue000 suffered
irremediable\ue000 injury\ue000 from\ue000 decay\ue000 and\ue000 the\ue000 repeated\ue000 restorations\ue000 to
which\ue000 it\ue000 was\ue000 recklessly\ue000 subjected\ue000 during\ue000 the\ue000 XVIIth\ue000 and\ue000 XVIIIth
centuries.\ue000 Nevertheless,\ue000 no\ue000 other\ue000 picture\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 Renaissance\ue000 has
become\ue000 so\ue000 wellknown\ue000 and\ue000 popular\ue000 through\ue000 copies\ue000 of\ue000 every\ue000 description.

Vasari\ue000 says,\ue000 and\ue000 rightly,\ue000 in\ue000 his\ue000 Life\ue000 of\ue000 Leonardo,\ue000 "that\ue000 he\ue000 laboured
much\ue000 more\ue000 by\ue000 his\ue000 word\ue000 than\ue000 in\ue000 fact\ue000 or\ue000 by\ue000 deed",\ue000 and\ue000 the\ue000 biographer
evidently\ue000 had\ue000 in\ue000 his\ue000 mind\ue000 the\ue000 numerous\ue000 works\ue000 in\ue000 Manuscript\ue000 which
have\ue000 been\ue000 preserved\ue000 to\ue000 this\ue000 day.\ue000 To\ue000 us,\ue000 now,\ue000 it\ue000 seems\ue000 almost
inexplicable\ue000 that\ue000 these\ue000 valuable\ue000 and\ue000 interesting\ue000 original\ue000 texts
should\ue000 have\ue000 remained\ue000 so\ue000 long\ue000 unpublished,\ue000 and\ue000 indeed\ue000 forgotten.\ue000 It
is\ue000 certain\ue000 that\ue000 during\ue000 the\ue000 XVIth\ue000 and\ue000 XVIIth\ue000 centuries\ue000 their
exceptional\ue000 value\ue000 was\ue000 highly\ue000 appreciated.\ue000 This\ue000 is\ue000 proved\ue000 not\ue000 merely
by\ue000 the\ue000 prices\ue000 which\ue000 they\ue000 commanded,\ue000 but\ue000 also\ue000 by\ue000 the\ue000 exceptional
interest\ue000 which\ue000 has\ue000 been\ue000 attached\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 change\ue000 of\ue000 ownership\ue000 of
merely\ue000 a\ue000 few\ue000 pages\ue000 of\ue000 Manuscript.

That,\ue000 notwithstanding\ue000 this\ue000 eagerness\ue000 to\ue000 possess\ue000 the\ue000 Manuscripts,
their\ue000 contents\ue000 remained\ue000 a\ue000 mystery,\ue000 can\ue000 only\ue000 be\ue000 accounted\ue000 for\ue000 by\ue000 the
many\ue000 and\ue000 great\ue000 difficulties\ue000 attending\ue000 the\ue000 task\ue000 of\ue000 deciphering\ue000 them.
The\ue000 handwriting\ue000 is\ue000 so\ue000 peculiar\ue000 that\ue000 it\ue000 requires\ue000 considerable
practice\ue000 to\ue000 read\ue000 even\ue000 a\ue000 few\ue000 detached\ue000 phrases,\ue000 much\ue000 more\ue000 to\ue000 solve
with\ue000 any\ue000 certainty\ue000 the\ue000 numerous\ue000 difficulties\ue000 of\ue000 alternative
readings,\ue000 and\ue000 to\ue000 master\ue000 the\ue000 sense\ue000 as\ue000 a\ue000 connected\ue000 whole.\ue000 Vasari
observes\ue000 with\ue000 reference\ue000 to\ue000 Leonardos\ue000 writing:\ue000 "he\ue000 wrote\ue000 backwards,
in\ue000 rude\ue000 characters,\ue000 and\ue000 with\ue000 the\ue000 left\ue000 hand,\ue000 so\ue000 that\ue000 any\ue000 one\ue000 who\ue000 is
not\ue000 practised\ue000 in\ue000 reading\ue000 them,\ue000 cannot\ue000 understand\ue000 them".\ue000 The\ue000 aid\ue000 of\ue000 a
mirror\ue000 in\ue000 reading\ue000 reversed\ue000 handwriting\ue000 appears\ue000 to\ue000 me\ue000 available\ue000 only
for\ue000 a\ue000 first\ue000 experimental\ue000 reading.\ue000 Speaking\ue000 from\ue000 my\ue000 own\ue000 experience,
the\ue000 persistent\ue000 use\ue000 of\ue000 it\ue000 is\ue000 too\ue000 fatiguing\ue000 and\ue000 inconvenient\ue000 to\ue000 be
practically\ue000 advisable,\ue000 considering\ue000 the\ue000 enormous\ue000 mass\ue000 of\ue000 Manuscripts
to\ue000 be\ue000 deciphered.\ue000 And\ue000 as,\ue000 after\ue000 all,\ue000 Leonardo's\ue000 handwriting\ue000 runs
backwards\ue000 just\ue000 as\ue000 all\ue000 Oriental\ue000 character\ue000 runs\ue000 backwards--that\ue000 is
to\ue000 say\ue000 from\ue000 right\ue000 to\ue000 left--the\ue000 difficulty\ue000 of\ue000 reading\ue000 direct\ue000 from\ue000 the
writing\ue000 is\ue000 not\ue000 insuperable.\ue000 This\ue000 obvious\ue000 peculiarity\ue000 in\ue000 the\ue000 writing

is\ue000 not,\ue000 however,\ue000 by\ue000 any\ue000 means\ue000 the\ue000 only\ue000 obstacle\ue000 in\ue000 the\ue000 way\ue000 of
mastering\ue000 the\ue000 text.\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 made\ue000 use\ue000 of\ue000 an\ue000 orthography\ue000 peculiar\ue000 to
himself;\ue000 he\ue000 had\ue000 a\ue000 fashion\ue000 of\ue000 amalgamating\ue000 several\ue000 short\ue000 words\ue000 into
one\ue000 long\ue000 one,\ue000 or,\ue000 again,\ue000 he\ue000 would\ue000 quite\ue000 arbitrarily\ue000 divide\ue000 a\ue000 long
word\ue000 into\ue000 two\ue000 separate\ue000 halves;\ue000 added\ue000 to\ue000 this\ue000 there\ue000 is\ue000 no\ue000 punctuation
whatever\ue000 to\ue000 regulate\ue000 the\ue000 division\ue000 and\ue000 construction\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 sentences,
nor\ue000 are\ue000 there\ue000 any\ue000 accents--and\ue000 the\ue000 reader\ue000 may\ue000 imagine\ue000 that\ue000 such
difficulties\ue000 were\ue000 almost\ue000 sufficient\ue000 to\ue000 make\ue000 the\ue000 task\ue000 seem\ue000 a
desperate\ue000 one\ue000 to\ue000 a\ue000 beginner.\ue000 It\ue000 is\ue000 therefore\ue000 not\ue000 surprising\ue000 that\ue000 the
good\ue000 intentions\ue000 of\ue000 some\ue000 of\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 s\ue000 most\ue000 reverent\ue000 admirers\ue000 should
have\ue000 failed.

Leonardos\ue000 literary\ue000 labours\ue000 in\ue000 various\ue000 departments\ue000 both\ue000 of\ue000 Art\ue000 and\ue000 of
Science\ue000 were\ue000 those\ue000 essentially\ue000 of\ue000 an\ue000 enquirer,\ue000 hence\ue000 the\ue000 analytical
method\ue000 is\ue000 that\ue000 which\ue000 he\ue000 employs\ue000 in\ue000 arguing\ue000 out\ue000 his\ue000 investigations
and\ue000 dissertations.\ue000 The\ue000 vast\ue000 structure\ue000 of\ue000 his\ue000 scientific\ue000 theories\ue000 is
consequently\ue000 built\ue000 up\ue000 of\ue000 numerous\ue000 separate\ue000 researches,\ue000 and\ue000 it\ue000 is
much\ue000 to\ue000 be\ue000 lamented\ue000 that\ue000 he\ue000 should\ue000 never\ue000 have\ue000 collated\ue000 and\ue000 arranged
them.\ue000 His\ue000 love\ue000 for\ue000 detailed\ue000 research--as\ue000 it\ue000 seems\ue000 to\ue000 me--was\ue000 the
reason\ue000 that\ue000 in\ue000 almost\ue000 all\ue000 the\ue000 Manuscripts,\ue000 the\ue000 different\ue000 paragraphs
appear\ue000 to\ue000 us\ue000 to\ue000 be\ue000 in\ue000 utter\ue000 confusion;\ue000 on\ue000 one\ue000 and\ue000 the\ue000 same\ue000 page,
observations\ue000 on\ue000 the\ue000 most\ue000 dissimilar\ue000 subjects\ue000 follow\ue000 each\ue000 other
without\ue000 any\ue000 connection.\ue000 A\ue000 page,\ue000 for\ue000 instance,\ue000 will\ue000 begin\ue000 with\ue000 some
principles\ue000 of\ue000 astronomy,\ue000 or\ue000 the\ue000 motion\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 earth;\ue000 then\ue000 come\ue000 the
laws\ue000 of\ue000 sound,\ue000 and\ue000 finally\ue000 some\ue000 precepts\ue000 as\ue000 to\ue000 colour.\ue000 Another\ue000 page
will\ue000 begin\ue000 with\ue000 his\ue000 investigations\ue000 on\ue000 the\ue000 structure\ue000 of\ue000 the
intestines,\ue000 and\ue000 end\ue000 with\ue000 philosophical\ue000 remarks\ue000 as\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 relations
of\ue000 poetry\ue000 to\ue000 painting;\ue000 and\ue000 so\ue000 forth.

Leonardo\ue000 himself\ue000 lamented\ue000 this\ue000 confusion,\ue000 and\ue000 for\ue000 that\ue000 reason\ue000 I\ue000 do
not\ue000 think\ue000 that\ue000 the\ue000 publication\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 texts\ue000 in\ue000 the\ue000 order\ue000 in\ue000 which
they\ue000 occur\ue000 in\ue000 the\ue000 originals\ue000 would\ue000 at\ue000 all\ue000 fulfil\ue000 his\ue000 intentions.\ue000 No
reader\ue000 could\ue000 find\ue000 his\ue000 way\ue000 through\ue000 such\ue000 a\ue000 labyrinth;\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 himself
could\ue000 not\ue000 have\ue000 done\ue000 it.

Added\ue000 to\ue000 this,\ue000 more\ue000 than\ue000 half\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 five\ue000 thousand\ue000 manuscript\ue000 pages
which\ue000 now\ue000 remain\ue000 to\ue000 us,\ue000 are\ue000 written\ue000 on\ue000 loose\ue000 leaves,\ue000 and\ue000 at\ue000 present
arranged\ue000 in\ue000 a\ue000 manner\ue000 which\ue000 has\ue000 no\ue000 justification\ue000 beyond\ue000 the\ue000 fancy\ue000 of
the\ue000 collector\ue000 who\ue000 first\ue000 brought\ue000 them\ue000 together\ue000 to\ue000 make\ue000 volumes\ue000 of
more\ue000 or\ue000 less\ue000 extent.\ue000 Nay,\ue000 even\ue000 in\ue000 the\ue000 volumes,\ue000 the\ue000 pages\ue000 of\ue000 which
were\ue000 numbered\ue000 by\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 himself,\ue000 their\ue000 order,\ue000 so\ue000 far\ue000 as\ue000 the
connection\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 texts\ue000 was\ue000 concerned,\ue000 was\ue000 obviously\ue000 a\ue000 matter\ue000 of
indifference\ue000 to\ue000 him.\ue000 The\ue000 only\ue000 point\ue000 he\ue000 seems\ue000 to\ue000 have\ue000 kept\ue000 in\ue000 view,
when\ue000 first\ue000 writing\ue000 down\ue000 his\ue000 notes,\ue000 was\ue000 that\ue000 each\ue000 observation\ue000 should
be\ue000 complete\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 end\ue000 on\ue000 the\ue000 page\ue000 on\ue000 which\ue000 it\ue000 was\ue000 begun.\ue000 The
exceptions\ue000 to\ue000 this\ue000 rule\ue000 are\ue000 extremely\ue000 few,\ue000 and\ue000 it\ue000 is\ue000 certainly
noteworthy\ue000 that\ue000 we\ue000 find\ue000 in\ue000 such\ue000 cases,\ue000 in\ue000 bound\ue000 volumes\ue000 with\ue000 his
numbered\ue000 pages,\ue000 the\ue000 written\ue000 observations:\ue000 "turn\ue000 over",\ue000 "This\ue000 is\ue000 the
continuation\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 previous\ue000 page",\ue000 and\ue000 the\ue000 like.\ue000 Is\ue000 not\ue000 this
sufficient\ue000 to\ue000 prove\ue000 that\ue000 it\ue000 was\ue000 only\ue000 in\ue000 quite\ue000 exceptional\ue000 cases\ue000 that
the\ue000 writer\ue000 intended\ue000 the\ue000 consecutive\ue000 pages\ue000 to\ue000 remain\ue000 connected,\ue000 when
he\ue000 should,\ue000 at\ue000 last,\ue000 carry\ue000 out\ue000 the\ue000 often\ue000 planned\ue000 arrangement\ue000 of\ue000 his

writings?

What\ue000 this\ue000 final\ue000 arrangement\ue000 was\ue000 to\ue000 be,\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 has\ue000 in\ue000 most\ue000 cases
indicated\ue000 with\ue000 considerable\ue000 completeness.\ue000 In\ue000 other\ue000 cases\ue000 this
authoritative\ue000 clue\ue000 is\ue000 wanting,\ue000 but\ue000 the\ue000 difficulties\ue000 arising\ue000 from
this\ue000 are\ue000 not\ue000 insuperable;\ue000 for,\ue000 as\ue000 the\ue000 subject\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 separate
paragraphs\ue000 is\ue000 always\ue000 distinct\ue000 and\ue000 well\ue000 defined\ue000 in\ue000 itself,\ue000 it\ue000 is
quite\ue000 possible\ue000 to\ue000 construct\ue000 a\ue000 well-planned\ue000 whole,\ue000 out\ue000 of\ue000 the

2

scattered\ue000 materials\ue000 of\ue000 his\ue000 scientific\ue000 system,\ue000 and\ue000 I\ue000 may\ue000 venture\ue000 to
state\ue000 that\ue000 I\ue000 have\ue000 devoted\ue000 especial\ue000 care\ue000 and\ue000 thought\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 due
execution\ue000 of\ue000 this\ue000 responsible\ue000 task.

The\ue000 beginning\ue000 of\ue000 Leonardo's\ue000 literary\ue000 labours\ue000 dates\ue000 from\ue000 about\ue000 his
thirty-seventh\ue000 year,\ue000 and\ue000 he\ue000 seems\ue000 to\ue000 have\ue000 carried\ue000 them\ue000 on\ue000 without
any\ue000 serious\ue000 interruption\ue000 till\ue000 his\ue000 death.\ue000 Thus\ue000 the\ue000 Manuscripts\ue000 that
remain\ue000 represent\ue000 a\ue000 period\ue000 of\ue000 about\ue000 thirty\ue000 years.\ue000 Within\ue000 this\ue000 space
of\ue000 time\ue000 his\ue000 handwriting\ue000 altered\ue000 so\ue000 little\ue000 that\ue000 it\ue000 is\ue000 impossible\ue000 to
judge\ue000 from\ue000 it\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 date\ue000 of\ue000 any\ue000 particular\ue000 text.\ue000 The\ue000 exact\ue000 dates,
indeed,\ue000 can\ue000 only\ue000 be\ue000 assigned\ue000 to\ue000 certain\ue000 note-books\ue000 in\ue000 which\ue000 the\ue000 year
is\ue000 incidentally\ue000 indicated,\ue000 and\ue000 in\ue000 which\ue000 the\ue000 order\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 leaves\ue000 has
not\ue000 been\ue000 altered\ue000 since\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 used\ue000 them.\ue000 The\ue000 assistance\ue000 these
afford\ue000 for\ue000 a\ue000 chronological\ue000 arrangement\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 Manuscripts\ue000 is
generally\ue000 self\ue000 evident.\ue000 By\ue000 this\ue000 clue\ue000 I\ue000 have\ue000 assigned\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 original
Manuscripts\ue000 now\ue000 scattered\ue000 through\ue000 England,\ue000 Italy\ue000 and\ue000 France,\ue000 the
order\ue000 of\ue000 their\ue000 production,\ue000 as\ue000 in\ue000 many\ue000 matters\ue000 of\ue000 detail\ue000 it\ue000 is\ue000 highly
important\ue000 to\ue000 be\ue000 able\ue000 to\ue000 verify\ue000 the\ue000 time\ue000 and\ue000 place\ue000 at\ue000 which\ue000 certain
observations\ue000 were\ue000 made\ue000 and\ue000 registered.\ue000 For\ue000 this\ue000 purpose\ue000 the
Bibliography\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 Manuscripts\ue000 given\ue000 at\ue000 the\ue000 end\ue000 of\ue000 Vol.\ue000 II,\ue000 may\ue000 be
regarded\ue000 as\ue000 an\ue000 Index,\ue000 not\ue000 far\ue000 short\ue000 of\ue000 complete,\ue000 of\ue000 all\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 s
literary\ue000 works\ue000 now\ue000 extant.\ue000 The\ue000 consecutive\ue000 numbers\ue000 (from\ue000 1\ue000 to\ue000 1566)
at\ue000 the\ue000 head\ue000 of\ue000 each\ue000 passage\ue000 in\ue000 this\ue000 work,\ue000 indicate\ue000 their\ue000 logical
sequence\ue000 with\ue000 reference\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 subjects;\ue000 while\ue000 the\ue000 letters\ue000 and
figures\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 left\ue000 of\ue000 each\ue000 paragraph\ue000 refer\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 original
Manuscript\ue000 and\ue000 number\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 page,\ue000 on\ue000 which\ue000 that\ue000 particular\ue000 passage
is\ue000 to\ue000 be\ue000 found.\ue000 Thus\ue000 the\ue000 reader,\ue000 by\ue000 referring\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 List\ue000 of
Manuscripts\ue000 at\ue000 the\ue000 beginning\ue000 of\ue000 Volume\ue000 I,\ue000 and\ue000 to\ue000 the\ue000 Bibliography\ue000 at
the\ue000 end\ue000 of\ue000 Volume\ue000 II,\ue000 can,\ue000 in\ue000 every\ue000 instance,\ue000 easily\ue000 ascertain,\ue000 not
merely\ue000 the\ue000 period\ue000 to\ue000 which\ue000 the\ue000 passage\ue000 belongs,\ue000 but\ue000 also\ue000 exactly
where\ue000 it\ue000 stood\ue000 in\ue000 the\ue000 original\ue000 document.\ue000 Thus,\ue000 too,\ue000 by\ue000 following\ue000 the
sequence\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 numbers\ue000 in\ue000 the\ue000 Bibliographical\ue000 index,\ue000 the\ue000 reader\ue000 may
reconstruct\ue000 the\ue000 original\ue000 order\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 Manuscripts\ue000 and\ue000 recompose\ue000 the
various\ue000 texts\ue000 to\ue000 be\ue000 found\ue000 on\ue000 the\ue000 original\ue000 sheets--so\ue000 much\ue000 of\ue000 it,
that\ue000 is\ue000 to\ue000 say,\ue000 as\ue000 by\ue000 its\ue000 subject-matter\ue000 came\ue000 within\ue000 the\ue000 scope\ue000 of
this\ue000 work.\ue000 It\ue000 may,\ue000 however,\ue000 be\ue000 here\ue000 observed\ue000 that\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 s
Manuscripts\ue000 contain,\ue000 besides\ue000 the\ue000 passages\ue000 here\ue000 printed,\ue000 a\ue000 great
number\ue000 of\ue000 notes\ue000 and\ue000 dissertations\ue000 on\ue000 Mechanics,\ue000 Physics,\ue000 and\ue000 some
other\ue000 subjects,\ue000 many\ue000 of\ue000 which\ue000 could\ue000 only\ue000 be\ue000 satisfactorily\ue000 dealt
with\ue000 by\ue000 specialists.\ue000 I\ue000 have\ue000 given\ue000 as\ue000 complete\ue000 a\ue000 review\ue000 of\ue000 these
writings\ue000 as\ue000 seemed\ue000 necessary\ue000 in\ue000 the\ue000 Bibliographical\ue000 notes.

In\ue000 1651,\ue000 Raphael\ue000 Trichet\ue000 Dufresne,\ue000 of\ue000 Paris,\ue000 published\ue000 a\ue000 selection
from\ue000 Leonardo's\ue000 writings\ue000 on\ue000 painting,\ue000 and\ue000 this\ue000 treatise\ue000 became\ue000 so
popular\ue000 that\ue000 it\ue000 has\ue000 since\ue000 been\ue000 reprinted\ue000 about\ue000 two-and-twenty\ue000 times,
and\ue000 in\ue000 six\ue000 different\ue000 languages.\ue000 But\ue000 none\ue000 of\ue000 these\ue000 editions\ue000 were
derived\ue000 from\ue000 the\ue000 original\ue000 texts,\ue000 which\ue000 were\ue000 supposed\ue000 to\ue000 have\ue000 been
lost,\ue000 but\ue000 from\ue000 early\ue000 copies,\ue000 in\ue000 which\ue000 Leonardo's\ue000 text\ue000 had\ue000 been\ue000 more
or\ue000 less\ue000 mutilated,\ue000 and\ue000 which\ue000 were\ue000 all\ue000 fragmentary.\ue000 The\ue000 oldest\ue000 and\ue000 on
the\ue000 whole\ue000 the\ue000 best\ue000 copy\ue000 of\ue000 Leonardo's\ue000 essays\ue000 and\ue000 precepts\ue000 on
Painting\ue000 is\ue000 in\ue000 the\ue000 Vatican\ue000 Library;\ue000 this\ue000 has\ue000 been\ue000 twice\ue000 printed,
first\ue000 by\ue000 Manzi,\ue000 in\ue000 1817,\ue000 and\ue000 secondly\ue000 by\ue000 Ludwig,\ue000 in\ue000 1882.\ue000 Still,
this\ue000 ancient\ue000 copy,\ue000 and\ue000 the\ue000 published\ue000 editions\ue000 of\ue000 it,\ue000 contain\ue000 much
for\ue000 which\ue000 it\ue000 would\ue000 be\ue000 rash\ue000 to\ue000 hold\ue000 Leonardo\ue000 responsible,\ue000 and\ue000 some
portions--such\ue000 as\ue000 the\ue000 very\ue000 important\ue000 rules\ue000 for\ue000 the\ue000 proportions\ue000 of
the\ue000 human\ue000 figure--are\ue000 wholly\ue000 wanting;\ue000 on\ue000 the\ue000 other\ue000 hand\ue000 they\ue000 contain
passages\ue000 which,\ue000 if\ue000 they\ue000 are\ue000 genuine,\ue000 cannot\ue000 now\ue000 be\ue000 verified\ue000 from\ue000 any
original\ue000 Manuscript\ue000 extant.\ue000 These\ue000 copies,\ue000 at\ue000 any\ue000 rate\ue000 neither\ue000 give
us\ue000 the\ue000 original\ue000 order\ue000 of\ue000 the\ue000 texts,\ue000 as\ue000 written\ue000 by\ue000 Leonardo,\ue000 nor\ue000 do
they\ue000 afford\ue000 any\ue000 substitute,\ue000 by\ue000 connecting\ue000 them\ue000 on\ue000 a\ue000 rational\ue000 scheme;

3

Activity (6)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 hundred reads
romwama liked this
romwama liked this
100buzz liked this
T.j. Thomas liked this
dardeer123 liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->