– – – . . :
by experience, i.e. by PLD. The driving force behind P&P-theories is theneedtoanswerPlato’sprobleminthedomainoflanguage.Byhavinginnategeneral principles with open parameter values, one can deal with two basicfacts that characterize language acquisition: (i) it’s considerably fast despitethe very serious deficiency in the data that the child can use in fixing his orher competence, and (ii) languages display an intricate surface variation.This dual problem is adequately accommodated if P&P is roughly correct.The ease of acquisition is due to the rich innate principles that the childcomes equipped with. In turn, the variation can be traced to the fact thatdifferent parameter values can result in significantly different outputs.
2.2.2 Levels of representation
GB-theories identify four significant levels of grammatical representation:D-Structure (DS), S-Structure (SS), Logical Form (LF), and PhoneticForm (PF). These levels are formal objects with specific functional andsubstantive characteristics. Let’s consider these.188.8.131.52 D-StructureDS is substantively described as the phrase marker at which ‘‘pure GF-
’’ isrepresented, i.e. the one-to-one correspondence between grammatical func-tion and thematic or
-role. This means that DS is where an expression’slogical/thematicrole
perfectly coincideswithits grammatical function
:logicalsubjectsareDS(grammatical)subjects,logicalobjectsareDS(gram-matical)objects,etc.Thus,atDS,positionsthatarethematicallyactivemustall be filled and positions with no thematic import must be left empty.Anexampleortwowillhelpfixideas.Considertheverbsin(1),forinstance:
(1) John persuaded Harry to kiss Mary.
requires a ‘‘persuader,’’ a ‘‘persuadee,’’ and a pro-positional complement, whereas
requires a ‘‘kisser’’ and a ‘‘kissee.’’Given that (1) is an acceptable sentence, each of these
-roles must thencorrespond to filled positions in its DS representation, as illustrated in (2):
(2) DS:[ John
The details of constructions like (1) are not important here. What is key isthat once we assume the notion of DS, (2) must have a filler in the positionassociatedwiththe‘‘kisser’’