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2002B scoring

2002B scoring

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AP
®
Chemistry2002 Scoring GuidelinesForm B
These materials were produced by Educational Testing Service
®
(ETS
®
), which develops and administers the examinations of the Advanced PlacementProgram for the College Board. The College Board and Educational Testing Service (ETS) are dedicated to the principle of equal opportunity, and their  programs, services, and employment policies are guided by that principle.The College Board is a national nonprofit membership association dedicated to preparing, inspiring, and connecting students to college and opportunity.Founded in 1900, the association is composed of more than 4,200 schools, colleges, universities, and other educational organizations. Each year, theCollege Board serves over three million students and their parents, 22,000 high schools, and 3,500 colleges, through major programs and services incollege admission, guidance, assessment, financial aid, enrollment, and teaching and learning. Among its best-known programs are the SAT
®
, thePSAT/NMSQT
®
, and the Advanced Placement Program
®
(AP
®
). The College Board is committed to the principles of equity andexcellence, and that commitment is embodied in all of its programs, services, activities, and concerns.Copyright © 2002 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved. College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, SAT, and the acorn logoare registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board. APIEL is a trademark owned by the College Entrance Examination Board. PSAT/NMSQT is aregistered trademark jointly owned by the College Entrance Examination Board and the National Merit Scholarship Corporation.Educational Testing Service and ETS are registered trademarks of Educational Testing Service.
The materials included in these files are intended for use by AP teachers for courseand exam preparation in the classroom; permission for any other use must besought from the Advanced Placement Program
®
. Teachers may reproduce them, inwhole or in part, in limited quantities, for face-to-face teaching purposes but maynot mass distribute the materials, electronically or otherwise. These materials andany copies made of them may not be resold, and the copyright notices must beretained as they appear here. This permission does not apply to any third-partycopyrights contained herein.
 
AP
®
CHEMISTRY2002 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)
Copyright © 2002 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved.Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board.
2Question 1
10 points
HC
3
H
5
O
3
(
aq
)
®¬
H
+
(
aq
) + C
3
H
5
O
3
 – 
(
aq
)1. Lactic acid, HC
3
H
5
O
3
 , is a monoprotic acid that dissociates in aqueous solution, as represented by theequation above. Lactic acid is 1.66 percent dissociated in 0.50
HC
3
H
5
O
3
(
aq
) at 298 K. For parts (a)through (d) below, assume the temperature remains at 298 K.(a) Write the expression for the acid-dissociation constant,
 K a
, for lactic acid and calculate its value. 
 K a
=
]OH[HC ]OH][C[H
353 _ 353
+
 0.50
 
×
0.0166 = 0.0083
= xHC
3
H
5
O
3
(
aq
)
 H
+
(
aq
) + C
3
H
5
O
3
 – 
(
aq
)I 0.50 ~0 0C –x +x +xE 0.50 x +x +x
 K a
=
]OH[HC ]OH][C[H
353353
 __ 
+
=[0.0083][ 0.0083][0.50 - 0.0083] 
 K a
= 1.4
×
10
 –4
 1 point earned for equilibriumexpression1 point earned for amountof HC
3
H
5
O
3
dissociating1 point earned for [H
+
] = [C
3
H
5
O
3
 – 
] set upand solution(b) Calculate the pH of 0.50
HC
3
H
5
O
3
. From part (a):[H
+
] = 0.0083
 pH = –log [H
+
] = –log (0.0083) = 2.081 point earned for correctlycalculating pH
 
AP
®
CHEMISTRY2002 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)
Copyright © 2002 by College Entrance Examination Board. All rights reserved.Advanced Placement Program and AP are registered trademarks of the College Entrance Examination Board.
3Question 1 (cont’d.)
(c) Calculate the pH of a solution formed by dissolving 0.045 mole of solid sodium lactate, NaC
3
H
5
O
3
 
, in250. mL of 0.50
HC
3
H
5
O
3
. Assume that volume change is negligible. 
L0.250OH NaCmol0.045
353
= 0.18
C
3
H
5
O
3
 – 
 HC
3
H
5
O
3
(
aq
)
 H
+
(
aq
) + C
3
H
5
O
3
 – 
(
aq
)I 0.50 ~0 0.18C –x +x +xE 0.50 x +x 0.18 + x
 K a
=
]OH[HC ]OH][C[H
353353
 __ 
+
=
]x50.0[ ]x18.0][x[
+
 Assume that x << 0.18
 
 K a
= 1.4
×
10
 –4
 =
]50.0[ ]18.0][x[
 x = 3.9
×
10
 –4
 
= [H
+
] pH = log [H
+
] = log (3.9
×
10
4
) = 3.41
OR 
 pH = p
 K 
a
 
+ log 0.18 or 0.045 = 3.410.50 0.125 1 point earned for [C
3
H
5
O
3
 – 
](or 0.250 L
×
0.50 mol/L = 0.125mol HC
3
H
5
O
3
and 0.045 mol C
3
H
5
O
3
 – 
)1 point earned for [H
+
](set up and calculation)1 point earned for calculating the valueof pH

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