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פאור מקור חיובן של מצות לדעת הרמבם (חוק טבעי)

פאור מקור חיובן של מצות לדעת הרמבם (חוק טבעי)

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ם״במרה תעדל תווצמה לש ןבויח רוקמAuthor(s): רוצאפ ףסויSource:
Tarbiz / 
ט״כשת ירשת) הנושאר תרבוח ,הנומשו םישולש ךרכ
,ץיברת 
), pp. 43-53Published by:
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מקוריובןלמצוותדעתרמב״ם
מאתוסףאעורלי.ט. ארעיוןסודימחשבהחוקיתהמוסריתלעמיםואישיוביםבעייםמוטליםל האנושותולה,קוקיםמהותאלהותהאדם,שנובעיםסדרדוםנצחי.יובים משפטנותליגאליתהמכותעקרייםלהכירוהלאסיתיסודותהקופהכאחדהחשיבוהוומאיםלוחוקשפט
2
(jus naturale
בעי
)
הטבעיוליםחוקכההשל)יוריספרודנציה(3פייקרוחוקטבעיההםכלאלהות5לכןואדוםנצחי כאלהותצמה6וקהודםחברהאנושיתוכתיבתוקיםחרים7שםמציאות האלהותודמתמציאותאדם8ואטבעי״שוםבאאדםבטבע״9היינוהאלהות קבעהותוטבע10שכלי11לאדם.וקהואתבונהעליונהratio umma) שהושמהטבע12הואתבונהאלהית13כןיןחוקטבעיוגבלמקוםוזמן, והואייםרומאמואתונא,כלארצותבכלזמנים14םינוקוקאישור
.1פירהלליתלושגחוהטבעימןתקופהיווניתעתיההדמננו,אה:Α .P ,.d׳Entreves atural ,Law ,London1961.2אמרפורטלחוקטבעימשפטנותרומיתלתקופהקלאסית,אה: Ernst Levy
.״Naturalaw nRomanThought״
esammelte Schrijten I,1963 pp3-19.3ונוגראפיהלימהלחוקטבעימשפטנותרומית,אה: arlo Alberto Maschi La.Concezione Naturalistica del Diritto e degli InstitutiGiuridici Romani ,Milano1937.4ידוע,תבייקרוםחדמקורותחשוביםיותרידיעתמשפטרומיתקופהקלאסית ודעתושמשתופתאותהקופה.שתמשתיאןמהדזרת,Xoeb-Classical Libraryל היחסביןושבחוקטבעימשפטנותקלאסיתהפילוסופיהסטוית,אה:nton Herman ,Chroust״Some Historical Observations n Natural Law and ׳According o Nature׳ ״,.Emerita 1 ,(1963) ,Madrid pp 285-298.De ,Legibus II ,IV 8 .5,.Idem II ,IV 10 .6,.Idem I ,VI 19 .7,Idem ,I ,IV 9 .8.Pro ,Milone ,IV 10 3.De ,Legibus I ,VI ;18-20 ,XIII ;34 ,XV 42-43 .10,.Idem ,II ,V 11.11,.Idem ,I ,VI 18.12,.Idem II ,IV 10.13.De Re ,publica III ,XXII ;33 De Natura ,deorum II ,LXXII 154 .14
 
44וסףאעור
2]
השלטון,15איןשלטוןכותבטלו.16צדקאמיתיינולהנקבעלדי מחוקקיםולדישלטון,לאהנקבעטבעאדםלדיאלהות17שוםךל אדםכולגלות,בליוםודד.יצוני,הוצדקהאמיתי18חוקטבעיואקשר ביןאדםהאלהות,הרי,אמור,ואבועמהותניהם.19 המושגלחוקטבעינ״לתקבלצלבותכנסיהנוצרית,20אחריןצל האסכולסטים,יסודפילוסופיהמוסריתהדתית21ומאסאקינוגדירתהחוקטבעי
(lex naturaiis)חוקנצחישרלקוטבעשכלאנושיartidpatioegis ae-) .22(ternaen rational! reaturaחוקנצחיlex aeterna)ולטכלמנהיגלעולה
ותנועה;
33
(secundum uod est directiva mnium ctuum t motionum
זההםהותהאל
5
(idem est quod lex aeterna)
24
החוקטבעיואמקורלחוקיםאחרים:וא מתגלהלדינבואה,אזכונהחוקאלהי
26
(lex divina)
וטבעשכלאנושי,אז יכונהחוקטבעי26וטבעשכלאנושי,אזכונהחוקטבעי
7
גםחוקיםצודקיםשלשלטוןlex ׳humana)ובעים,ישהםוקף,מידההםואמיםחוקנצחישר חלקוטבעשכלאנושי28חוקטבעיינוקוקהכרזהופירסוםpromuigatio) כשםזקוקיםוקיםחרים,הריצםביעותושכלאנושילדיאלואידסומו.29 חוקהואקשרטבעי,יסודאונטולוגי,יןאדםהאלהות.30
.De ,LegibusII ,IV 10.15,Idem I ,XVI ;43-45 ,ΙΙ ,ν 14 De Re ,public* III ,XXI 33 .16ליטולחוקאותה תקופהאה:incenzo Arangio-RuizLa regiede droit t la 101 dans 1׳antiquiteclas ,.sique״ Roma ,1946 p 255 ff.De ,Legibus I ,XV ,42-XVIII 49 .17.De Re publics ,III ,XXII 33 .18.De Natura Deorum II ,XXXI ;78-79 ,IXXII ;154 De ,Legibus I ,VII 23 .19.20אה:rnst Troeltsch he Social Teachingof the Christian Churches I New,York ,I960 p 150 and .ff William A ,Barner Origen nd the Tradition f Natural.Law ,Concepts״ umbartonOaks Papers ,(8) Cambridge (Mass.) ,1954 pp 49-82.21אה:ocial Teachingheי,מי57אילך,05אילך,השווה11אילך,בהערותם. .Summa Theologica1 2 Q ,XCI .a 2
.22
,Jtf*«Q ,XIII .a 1
.23.24
אתומרת,הותאל,״ש. ,Idem Q.CXIII .a 4
.25
,./rfk/wQ.XCL a 4 .26
.27
אהמצוייןהערה22 .Idem Q.XC .a 4.28,Idem Q ,XCVI .a4
.29.30
אהose Ma ,Diez-Alegria l desarrollo e la doctrina e la leynatural n Luis de

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