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Part QB - Brazing

Part QB - Brazing

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PART QB BRAZING
ARTICLE XIBRAZING GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
QB-100 GENERAL
Section IX of the ASME Boiler and Pressure VesselCode relates to the qualification of welders, weldingoperators, brazers, and brazing operators, and the proce-dures that they employ in welding and brazing accordingto the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code andthe ASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping. It is dividedinto two parts: Part QW gives requirements for weldingand Part QB contains requirements for brazing.
QB-100.1
The purpose of the Brazing ProcedureSpecification (BPS) and Procedure Qualification Record(PQR) is to determine that the brazement proposedfor construction is capable of providing the requiredproperties for its intended application. It is presupposedthat the brazer or brazing operator performing thebrazing procedure qualification test is a skilled workman.That is, the brazing procedure qualification test estab-lishes the properties of the brazement, not the skill of the brazer or brazing operator. Briefly, a BPS liststhe variables, both essential and nonessential, and theacceptable ranges of these variables when using theBPS. The BPS is intended to provide direction for thebrazer or brazing operator. The PQR lists what wasused in qualifying the BPS and the test results.
QB-100.2
In performance qualification, the basiccriterion established for brazer qualification is to deter-mine the brazer’s ability to make a sound brazed joint.The purpose of the performance qualification test forthe brazing operator is to determine the operator’smechanical ability to operate the brazing equipment.
QB-100.3
Brazing Procedure Specifications (BPS)written and qualified in accordance with the rules of this Section, and brazers and operators of automaticand machine brazing equipment also qualified in accord-ance with these rules may be used in any construction
183
built to the requirements of the ASME Boiler andPressure Vessel Code or the ASME B31 Code forPressure Piping.However, other Sections of the Code state the condi-tions under which Section IX requirements are manda-tory, in whole or in part, and give additional require-ments. The reader is advised to take these provisionsinto consideration when using this Section.Brazing Procedure Specifications, Procedure Qualifi-cation Records, and Brazer or Brazing Operator Per-formance Qualifications made in accordance with therequirements of the 1962 Edition or any later Editionof Section IX may be used in any construction builtto the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code or theASME B31 Code for Pressure Piping.Brazing Procedure Specifications, Procedure Qualifi-cation Records, and Brazer or Brazing Operator Per-formance Qualifications made in accordance with therequirements of the Editions of Section IX prior to1962, in which all of the requirements of the 1962Edition or later Editions are met, may also be used.Brazing Procedure Specifications and Brazer/BrazingOperator Performance Qualification Records meetingthe above requirements do not need to be amended toinclude any variables required by later Editions andAddenda.
Qualification of new Brazing Procedure Specifica-tions or Brazers/Brazing Operators and requalifica-tion of existing Brazing Procedure Specifications orBrazers/Brazing Operators shall be in accordancewith the current Edition (see Foreword) and Addendaof Section IX.
QB-101 Scope
The rules in this Section apply to the preparationof Brazing Procedure Specifications, and the qual-
 
QB-101
1998 SECTION IX
QB-124
ification of brazing procedures, brazers, and brazingoperators for all types of manual and machine brazingprocesses permitted in this Section. These rules mayalso be applied, insofar as they are applicable, to othermanual or machine brazing processes, permitted inother Sections.
QB-102 Terms and Definitions
Some of the more common terms relating to brazingare defined in QB-492. These are in substantialagreement with the definitions of the American WeldingSociety given in its document, A3.0-89, Standard Weld-ing Terms and Definitions.Wherever the word pipe is designated, tubes shallalso be applicable.
QB-103 ResponsibilityQB-103.1 Brazing.
Each manufacturer
1
or contractor
1
is responsible for the brazing done by his organization,and shall conduct the tests required in this Section toqualify the brazing procedures he uses in the construc-tion of the brazed assemblies built under this Codeand the performance of brazers and brazing operatorswho apply these procedures.
QB-103.2 Records.
Each manufacturer or contractorshall maintain a record of the results obtained in brazingprocedure and brazer or brazing operator performancequalifications. These records shall be certified by themanufacturer or contractor and shall be accessible tothe Authorized Inspector. Refer to recommended Formsin Nonmandatory Appendix B.
QB-110 BRAZE ORIENTATION
The orientations of brazes with respect to planes of reference are classified in accordance with QB-461 intofour positions
2
(A, B, C, and D in column 1), basedon the basic flow of brazing filler metal through joints.These positions are flat flow, vertical downflow, verticalupflow, and horizontal flow.
1
Wherever these words are used in Section IX, they shall includeinstaller or assembler.
2
In the following paragraphs the word
position
is synonymous with
 flow position
.
184
QB-120 TEST POSITIONS FOR LAP, BUTT,SCARF, OR RABBET JOINTS
Brazed joints may be made in test coupons orientedin any of the positions in QB-461 and as describedin the following paragraphs, except that angular devia-tion from the specified horizontal and vertical flowplanes in accordance with column 1 of QB-461 ispermitted during brazing.
QB-121 Flat-Flow Position
The joints in position suitable for applying brazingfiller metal in rod, strip, or other suitable form underthe flat-flow conditions are shown in sketches (1)through (5) of Line A in QB-461. The maximumpermitted angular deviation from the specified flowplane is
15 deg.
QB-122 Vertical-Downflow Position
The joints in a position suitable for applying brazingfiller metal in rod, strip, or other suitable form underthe vertical-downflow conditions are shown in sketches(1) through (4) of Line B in QB-461. The brazingfiller metal flows by capillary action with the aid of gravity downward into the joint. The maximum permit-ted angular deviation from the specified flow plane is
75 deg.
QB-123 Vertical-Upflow Position
The joints in position suitable for applying brazingfiller metal in rod, strip, or other suitable form underthe vertical-upflow conditions are shown in sketches(1) through (4) of Line C in QB-461. The brazingfiller metal flows by capillary action through the joint.The maximum permitted angular deviation from thespecified flow plane is
75 deg.
QB-124 Horizontal-Flow Position
The joints in a position suitable for applying brazingfiller metal in rod, strip, or other suitable form underthe horizontal-flow conditions are shown in sketches(1) and (2) of Line D of QB-461. The brazing fillermetal flows horizontally by capillary action throughthe joint. The maximum permitted angular deviationfrom the specified flow plane is
75 deg.
 
QB-140
GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
QB-152
QB-140 TYPES AND PURPOSES OF TESTSAND EXAMINATIONSQB-141 Tests
Tests used in brazing procedure and performancequalifications are as follows.
QB-141.1 Tension Tests.
Tension tests, as describedin QB-150, are used to determine the ultimate strengthof brazed butt, scarf, lap, and rabbet joints.
QB-141.2 Guided-Bend Tests.
Guided-bend tests,as described in QB-160, are used to determine thedegree of soundness and ductility of butt and scarf  joints.
QB-141.3 Peel Tests.
Peel tests, as described in QB-170, are used to determine the quality of the bond andthe amount of defects in lap joints.
QB-141.4 Sectioning Tests.
Sectioning tests, i.e.,the sectioning of test coupons, as described in QB-180, are used to determine the soundness of workman-ship coupons or test specimens. Sectioning tests arealso used as a substitute for the peel test where thestrength of brazing filler material is equal to or greaterthan the strength of the base metals.
QB-141.5 Workmanship Coupons.
Workmanshipcoupons, as described in QB-182, are used to determinethe soundness of joints other than the standard butt,scarf, lap, and rabbet joints.
QB-141.6 Visual Examination.
Visual examinationof brazed joints is used for estimating the soundnessby external appearance, such as continuity of the brazingfiller metal, size, contour, and wetting of fillet alongthe joint and, where appropriate, to determine if fillermetal flowed through the joint from the side of applica-tion to the opposite side.
QB-150 TENSION TESTSQB-151 Specimens
Tension test specimens shall conform to one of thetypes illustrated in QB-462.1(a) through QB-462.1(f),and shall meet the requirements of QB-153.
QB-151.1 Reduced Section — Plate.
Reduced-sec-tion specimens conforming to the requirements givenin QB-462.1(a) and QB-462.1(c) may be used fortension tests on all thicknesses of plate. The specimensmay be tested in a support fixture in substantial accord-ance with QB-462.1(f).
185
(a)
For thicknesses up to and including 1 in. (25 mm),a full thickness specimen shall be used for each requiredtension test.
(b)
For plate thicknesses greater than 1 in. (25 mm),full thickness specimens or multiple specimens maybe used, provided QB-151.1(c) and QB-151.1(d) arecomplied with.
(c)
When multiple specimens are used in lieu of fullthickness specimens, each set shall represent a singletension test of the full plate thickness. Collectively, allof the specimens required to represent the full thicknessof the brazed joint at one location shall comprise a set.
(d)
When multiple specimens are necessary, the entirethickness shall be mechanically cut into a minimumnumber of approximately equal strips of a size thatcan be tested in the available equipment. Each specimenof the set shall be tested and meet the requirementsof QB-153.
QB-151.2 Reduced Section — Pipe.
Reduced-sec-tion specimens conforming to the requirements givenin QB-462.1(b) may be used for tension tests on allthicknesses of pipe or tube having an outside diametergreater than 3 in. (76 mm). The specimens may betested in a support fixture in substantial accordancewith QB-462.1(f).
(a)
For thicknesses up to and including 1 in. (25 mm),a full thickness specimen shall be used for each requiredtension test.
(b)
For pipe thicknesses greater than 1 in. (25 mm),full thickness specimens or multiple specimens maybe used, provided QB-151.2(c) and QB-151.2(d) arecomplied with.
(c)
When multiple specimens are used in lieu of fullthickness specimens, each set shall represent a singletension test of the full pipe thickness. Collectively, allof the specimens required to represent the full thicknessof the brazed joint at one location shall comprise a set.
(d)
When multiple specimens are necessary, the entirethickness shall be mechanically cut into a minimumnumber of approximately equal strips of a size thatcan be tested in the available equipment. Each specimenof the set shall be tested and meet the requirementsof QB-153.
QB-151.3 Full-Section Specimens for Pipe.
Tensionspecimens conforming to the dimensions given in QB-462.1(e) may be used for testing pipe with an outsidediameter of 3 in. (76 mm) or less.
QB-152 Tension Test Procedure
The tension test specimen shall be ruptured undertensile load. The tensile strength shall be computed by

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