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funtional_analysis_phddong1

# funtional_analysis_phddong1

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05/09/2014

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Exercises
in
Functional
Analysis
Ph\ue000m \u0110\u00ecnh \u0110\ue001ng
A review for final exam
2008
1st Edition
L\ue00di t\ue015a
To all the girls
i love before.

T\u00f4i \u0111\ue00en v\ue01di gi\ue000i t\u00edch h\u00e0m nh\u01b0 m\ue01bt "s\ue027 s\ue008p \u0111\ue00at c\ue021as\ue018 ph\ue006n". C\u00f3 l\ue00b, \u0111\u00f3 l\u00e0 nguy\u00eannh\u00e2n \u0111\ue010 t\u00f4i vi\ue011c vi\ue00et t\ue006p t\u00e0i li\ue011u nh\ue015 n\u00e0y. Xin nh\ue003n m\ue001nh r\ue007ng, \u0111\u00e2y ch\ue012 l\u00e0 s\ue027 g\u00f3p nh\ue00at khai tri\ue010nch\ue009ngc\u00f3 g\u00ec l\u00e0 s\u00e1ng t\ue001o. Th\ue012nhtho\ue000ngc\u00f3 \u0111\u00f4i l\ue01ci khen t\ue00ang, t\u00f4i l\ue003y l\u00e0mx\ue003u h\ue01a nh\u01b0 \u0111\u00e3 c\u01b0\ue01eng chi\ue00emm\ue01bt c\u00e1i g\u00ec \u0111\u00f3 kh\u00f4ng ph\ue000i ph\ue006n m\u00ecnh \u0111\u01b0\ue020c h\u01b0\ue01fng.

Khi m\ue01bt k\ue00c b\u00ecnhth\u01b0\ue01cng qu\u00ean \u01b0\ue01dc l\u01b0\ue020ng t\u00e0i s\ue024c c\ue021a m\u00ecnh, vi\ue00et v\ue00d m\ue01bt \u0111i\ue00du qu\u00e1 r\ue01bng l\ue01dnv\u00e0tr\ue023ut\u01b0\ue020ngch\ue008c h\ue009n kh\u00f4ng th\ue010 tr\u00e1nh kh\ue015i thi\ue00eu s\u00f3t. R\ue003t mong s\ue027 ch\ue012 gi\u00e1o c\ue021a c\u00e1c \u0111\ue01bc gi\ue000.

N\u01b0\ue01dc mu\u00f4n s\u00f4ng kh\u00f4ng\u0111\ue021 cho t\u00f4i r\ue026a tai \u0111\ue010 nghe nh\ue025ng l\ue01ci cao lu\ue006n.
Hu\ue00e, th\u00e1ng 5, 2008.
Ph\ue001m \u0110\u00ecnh \u0110\ue017ng
Ph.D.Dong
3
"A journey of a thousand miles begin with one step" - L\u00e3o T\ue014
1 Kh\u00f4ng gian \u0111\ue002nh chu\ue000n
B\u00e0i t\ue001p1.1.ChoX l\u00e0 m\ue016t kh\u00f4ng gian vect\u01a1 ,f1 ,f2: X\u2212\u2192 K l\u00e0 c\u00e1c \u00e1nh
x\ue001 tuy\ue00bn t\u00ednh th\ue010af1(x)f2(x) = 0,\u2200x\u2208 X. Ch\ue01eng minh r\ue006ngf1\u22610 ho\ue009c
f2\u22610.
Ch\ue01eng minh.Gi\ue000s\ue026f1\ue001= 0 ta c\ue002nch\ue024ngminhf2= 0. V\u00ecf1\ue001= 0 n\u00ean t\ue017n
t\ue001ix1\u2208 X sao chof1(x1)\ue001= 0, l\u00fac \u0111\u00f3
f2(x1f1(x1)) = f2(x1)f1(x1) = 0
Suyraf2(x1) = 0 hayx1\u2208 Kerf2.
N\ue00euf2\ue001= 0 l\u00fac \u0111\u00f3 t\ue017n t\ue001ix2\u2208 X sao chof2(x2)\ue001= 0 th\u00ecx2\u2208 Kerf1. \u0110\ue00at

x0= x1+ x2, l\u00fac \u0111\u00f3
f1(x0) = f1(x1) + f1(x2) = f1(x1)\ue001= 0
f2(x0) = f2(x1) + f2(x2) = f2(x2)\ue001= 0

=\u21d2f1(x0)f2(x0) =f1(x1)f2(x2)\ue001= 0
M\u00e2u thu\ue004n v\ue01di gi\ue000 thi\ue00et, v\ue006yf2\u22610.
B\u00e0i t\ue001p 1.2.ChoX l\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng gian vect\u01a1 ,A: X\u2212\u2192 X l\u00e0 \u00e1nh x\ue001 tuy\ue00bn
t\u00ednh th\ue010aA2= 0. Ch\ue01eng minh r\ue006ngId\u2212 A l\u00e0 song \u00e1nh.
Ch\ue01eng minh.V\ue01di m\ue016ix1 ,x2\u2208 X th\ue015a(Id\u2212 A)(x1) = (Id\u2212 A)(x2)\u21d2
x1\u2212 A(x1) = x2\u2212 A(x2)\u21d2 A(x1\u2212 x2) = x1\u2212 x2\u21d2 A2(x1\u2212 x2) =
A(x1)\u2212 A(x2) = 0\u21d2 A(x1) = A(x2). t\ue023\u0111\u00f3 suyra x1= x2. V\ue006 y I d\u2212 Al\u00e0
\u0111\u01a1n\u00e1nh.
V\ue01di m\ue016iy\u2208 X , x\u00e9tx= A(y)+y\u2208 X , khi \u0111\u00f3(Id\u2212A)(x) = (Id\u2212A)(A(y)+
y) = A(y) + y\u2212 A(A(y) + y) = A(y) + y\u2212 A2(y)\u2212 A(y) = y. V\ue006 y I d\u2212 A
l\u00e0 to\u00e0n\u00e1nh.
V\ue006yId\u2212 A l\u00e0 song \u00e1nh.
B\u00e0i t\ue001p1.3.ChoX, Y l\u00e0 hai kh\u00f4ng gian vect\u01a1 v\ue018idimX= n, dimY= m.
Ch\ue01eng minh r\ue006ngdim(L(X, Y)) = n.m.
Ch\ue01eng minh.Ta c\u00f3L(X, Y) ={f: X\u2212\u2192 Y l\u00e0 c\u00e1c \u00e1nhx\ue001 tuy\ue00en t\u00ednh} l\u00e0
m\ue01bt kh\u00f4nggianvect\u01a1. L\u00fac \u0111\u00f3L(X, Y)\u223c= Matn\u00d7m(K), suyradim(L(X, Y))
=dimMatn\u00d7m(K).
M\ue00at kh\u00e1c ta th\ue003yAij l\u00e0 ma tr\ue006n sao choaij= 1,1\u2264 i\u2264 n,1\u2264 j\u2264 m c\u00f2n
c\u00e1c v\ue014 tr\u00ed c\u00f2n l\ue001i b\ue007ng 0 th\u00ec l\u00fac \u0111\u00f3 h\ue011 g\ue017m{(Aij )},1 \u2264i \u2264n,1 \u2264j \u2264m