Occurrence of heavy oil is conﬁned to Kalol formation alongthe linear belt close to the east of Mehsana horst and Bechrajiﬁed. Cambay Shale of Paleocene -early Eocene represents theprimary source rock (Figure 5), deposited during synrift stageof basin evoluation. Based on an identiﬁed unconformitymarker and geochemical characteristics of sediments CambayShale is divided into two members: Older Cambay Shale andYounger Cambay Shale, the latter is characterized by threeprominent deltaic sequences (sandstone-shale-coal) separatedby marine shale. In Mehsana block the thickness of OlderCambay Shale ranges from 200–800m. The organic matter ismainly type-III kerogen and organo facies deposited towardsbasinal axis is characterized by type-II kerogen. TOC in Cam-bay Shale ranges from 2–4%. The burial history analysis (Fig-ure 6) shows onset of oil generation took place since earlyMiocene time. The associated events/processes are depicted inFigure 7. The carbon isotope of aromatics and saturates plot(Figure 8) infers high proportion input of terrestrial organicmatters in the source rock. Hopane and sterane biomarker dis-tribution indicates that the heavy oil belt of Lanwa - Balol —Santhal is abundant of C29 sterane (Figure 9). High ratio of hopane to sterane (11–24) indicates terrestrial sourceorganics
and in contrast, predominance of C30 steranehomologues in heavy oil of Becharji ﬁeld (Figure 9) inferslacustrine algal input in the source facies deposited in Bechrajilow. Biomarker ﬁngerprints (Figure 10) of heavy oils showcharacteristics of similar terrestrial source organics. Paleogeothermal gradient of North Cambay basin is 35–50° C/km.The average TOC, S2 and HI value of Cambay shale sectionmet in the well drilled in the basinal part is 3.95, 5.6 and 116,and that of in Bechraji ﬁeld is 0.9, 0.34, and 35. In the northCambay basin the maximum hydrocarbon generated (HCG) inCambay shale is of the order of 4 million MT/Km.
Kadi and Kalol formations represent the principle clasticreservoir facies in Mehsana block. The litho assemblage ischaracterized by sandstone — coal — carbonaceous shalesuite deposited under paludal environment.The heavy oiloccurs at a relatively shallow depth (-800 to -1050mts) and isconﬁned to the upper part of Kalol formation (Kalol sand-Iand II, Upper Suraj Pay of Wavel member which pinch-outsagainst the Mehsana Horst. The thickness of each payzoneranges from 4–20 mts., porosity and permeability are of theorder of 20–30% and 3–5 darcy.The level of certainty infers the conﬁdence level in oil to aparticular active source rock. GC-MS, carbon isotopic andbiomarker data of oils and source rock extracts
11, 12, 14
fairlyshow presence of good correlation between oil and Cambayshale source rock. Carbon isotopic composition of aromatics(ranges from - 29.4 to -31.6) of heavy oil indicates goodmatch with the value of Cambay source sediments (-26.1 to -29.8) and carbon isotopic ratios saturates versus of aromaticsof heavy oil and rock extracts of Cambay shale show nearsimilarity (Figure 8). The C29R/C30R sterane ratio (1.0-2.3)is well correlated with the higher sterane rich (0.98 - 2.03) of Cambay shale.
Also hopane/sterane ratio (11.0-23.4) of heavy oil exhibit close correlation with that of sedimentextracts (8.5-28.3) of Cambay shale.
Petroleum Geochemistry ofHeavy Oil: A DegradationalModel
Oils from the ﬁelds (Lanwa, Balol, Santhal, and N. Kadi andBechraji) are asphaltic, heavy (0.93–0.97) and aromatic (Satu-rate: aromatic ratio = 0.57-1.53) in contrast to the oils of thesurrounding ﬁelds. The oil occurs at a shallower depth withinthe Kalol formation. Chromatographic signature of these oilsare distinguished by complete absence of n-alkanes (Figure11) with partial absence in the oil of North Kadi ﬁeld situatedsouth of the elongated homoclinal linear heavy oil belt.
Devoid of n-alkanes, reduced isoprenoids and absence of alkylcyclohexanes (Figure 12) indicate the oil might haveundergone biodegradation.
Carbon isotopic composition of saturate and aromatic fractions of heavy oil ranges from -31.0to -33.0 and -29.4 to -31.6 respectively.
The associated gas,rich in methane (95–99%) and with high ic4/nc4 ratio (4–6), ischaracteristics of thermogenic in nature.
13c saturates support low maturity of sourcerock. Biomarker study reveals that hopane isomerisation hasreached equilibrium stage
inferring generation of oil hasentered the oil window (Ro > 0.55). The low value of C29sterane isomers viz, 20S/20R and
shows comparativelylow maturation level of heavy oils
and generation of oil froman early catagenetic stage.
Absence of n-alkanes does not mean always immaturity.The Kalol oils close to Mehsana Horst is heavy, viscous andasphaltic in nature and GC of the heavy oil pyrolysates resem-bles with that of well preserved oils of the surroundingﬁelds.
Hence absence of n-alkanes could be due to biodegra-dation/water-washing.Interestingly the synchronous horsting continues uptoMiocene, predating/contemporaneous with the hydrocarbonmigration time. The uplifted structure slopes southward withgradual diminishing of horsting and it has been observed thatthe degree of alteration of oil increases towards north alongthe linear belt (Figure 13). It has been observed that oil viscos-ity also increases towards north (60 cp in Santhal, 150 cp inBalol and 600 cp Lanwa ﬁeld). Possibly the upliftment hasestablished an hydrostatic head to drive meteoric water andthere by altering the oil. Presence of thermophillic micro-organisms in the formation water has also been observed
Structurally controlled high relief is characterized by heavyoil in this region. The hydrogeochemistry study
has alsoindicated the recharge of meteoric water causing alteration of oil.