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State of Press Freedom in Pakistan

State of Press Freedom in Pakistan

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Published by alonesoul1
this document state of press freedom in pakistan from 1947 to 2009
this document state of press freedom in pakistan from 1947 to 2009

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Published by: alonesoul1 on Oct 11, 2011
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02/08/2012

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....
--ncrou.:
U~UICUHl'"Pll"l5o"~'"...
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mediadeveloperandfacilitatorratherthanmediacontrollerandnewsmuzzler".Inthe
light
ofthisstatementpleaseevaluatepublicsectormediapolicyanddiscussthestateofpressfreedominPakistan.
Ana.
FromFacilitatortoController,aCriticalAnalysis
Havingtheimmensepowertoinfluencethemindsofmassesandll.bililyto.~specificideologiesintothem,mediahasbeen:theIuvouritetoolofeliteofeverysocietythatcanworkasthecustodianoftheirparticular
&
vestedinterests.
It
hasbeenaninterestingquestionof
111
'0
fieldthat
if
"MediasetstheAgendaofPeople,whosetstheAgenda
of
media?"~esimplestanswertothisquerycomesas"TheMediaManagers"whodeterminetheboundaries
for
theworkingofmediaaswellasusetoprovidenecessaryfacilitiesforthedisseminationoftheinformation.Buttheanswerdoescarryabunchofcomplexitiesinit,as
if
mediamanagersadoptsuchpoliciesandstrategieswhicharemorefunctionalinparticularinterestsratherthanmassinterests.Themediadoesplayarolelikethewatchdog
in
thehandsofelites.Tomaintainthishegemonicatmosphere,informationlaws~a.nd_J~gaL~dillegalpressuresareimposedonmediasothatitcanbecontrolled.Here,acasestudy(pressfreedominPakistan)isgiventopresent
a
clearandscrupulousoverviewofthe"publicsectormediapolicy",regardingthepressandgovernmentalrelationsinPakistanisociety.
5TATE
OF
PRESSFREEDOMINPAKISTAN
AHistoricalPerspective
AlookatthehistoryofjournalisminPakistanrevealsadismalstory,litteredwithtragiceventsandglorypictures.Journalistsbeingfloggedrottingbehindbars,waninginexile,
pens
werebeingfetteredandvoicesbeingmuzzled.Ahistoricalperspectiveonstateofpressfreedom
in
Pakistanhasbeendividedintosevenphasesforconvenience.1.ptPhase:1947-19582.
2nd
Phase:1958-1971-Ayub
&
YahyaRegime3.3
rd
Phase:1971-1977-BhuttoRegime4.
4th
Phase:1977-1988-Zia-[unejoRegime5.5
th
Phase:1988-19996.
7.
6
th
Phase:1999-20087
th
Phase:2009-Benazir
&
NawazSharif-MusharrafRegime-PPPRegime
 
14
FirstPhase(1947-191;8),Threeprogressivemagazines
Saoera,Naqoosh
&
Adb~e~Latif
wereproscribedbyMuslimLeaguegovernment
in
Mah.ZamirNiazicalls
it
"firstattack-onpressfreedominPakistan-in
19~8.'l~\liz
AhmadEaizwasarrestedonpublishinganews.againstgoverrunentin.",daily_hnrqz.,InMay
1949,
SindhGovernmentorderedtostopdistributionof
Dawn.
.
_"
Anotherimportantinstanceistheclosureof
.~anY..0qala~
in
1949;
PunjabGovernmentstoppedalladvertisements'
of
Inqlliab
(EditorAbdulMajidSalik,andGKulamRasoolMehr).N!:wsprint
g!!Q.@
wascancelled.AftersomeLimeitscirculationwasbanned
in
NWFPbytheprovincialgovenunent.Further,newspaperagentsandhawkerswerepressurisednottodistributethenewspaper.At'lastnewspaperwasdoseddowninNovember
1949.'
Weekly
NewOriEJi
wasforcedtoclosedown
in
Karachi;firstnewspapetofP~njab
Safeena.
wasdoseddownbytheordersofPunjabgovernmentinJuly,
1949.
In/thenexttwoyears.rrnanyjournalistswerearrestedunderPublicSafetyActwhichwasena~9..49.Pre-censorshipwasImposedon
NaWi1+
W_aqL.on
Feb2,J.95l..
Daultana
,_.".--
Government
in
Punjabcancelledthedeclarationof
Nawfl-i-Waqt.
ItspressWassealed.''Whentheyfiledapplicationsforthedeclarationfor
Makltztm,
Qindeel
and
Nida-e-Millat,
Governmentrefusedtoissuedecl~b
Nicra:e-Millat.
Anothernewspaperof,thesamegroup
Jihad
wasalsoforcedtoclosedown,'After'oneyearofhardships
In
March
1952"
publication
ofNawa+Waqt
wasresumedafteraheavyloss.InDhaka,theworstincidenttookplatewhentheeditor
of,
aprominentEnglishdaily
~akistanQbse~r,
Abdus·~critidsedPrimeMinisterKhawajaNazimuddin
in
aneditorial
in
1952.HewasarrestedtwiceinafakecaseunderthePublicSafetyAct.In
1954,
hewas.releasedbuthispresswasconfiscated,150workersleftjoblessandpublisherfacedalossof
Rs,
threeLakhs.JusticeMunirReportrevealed
thatr,
InthefirstsevenyearsaftercreationofPakistan(1947·1953),31newspaperswerebannedinPunjabonly.Fifteenothernewspaperswereaskedtofurnishthe'securities."',Governmentstoppedadvertisementsof
Dawn,EveningStar,PakistanEconomist,Mirror,
and
Variety.
In
1952-53,almost50newspaperswerewarnedforpublishingmaterialagainstthepresslaws.InIunu
1954,
accordingtoahandoutofPressInformationDepartment,
Jour
journalistswerearrestedandsentenced'forone-yearimprisonmordunderIhSecurityofPakistan
Act.
In
'1957,
fit:l'II)'lty
d~:pO!.dts
WWI'I~
t!'·ll1.llIt!tid
fl'(ll!].
9
IWW
p.II)I'I'M
III
Sindh,
 
15
Ayub
Regime
(1958-1969)
ThemosttraumaticeraofjournalismwasAyubRegime.OnOctober8,1959martiallawwasimposedand"journalisticcriticismonGovernmerit~asdeclaredasprohibited."Withinoneweekofthis"peacefulrevolution",FaizAhmedFaiz,AhmedNadeemQasmiandSyedSibl-e-HassanwerearrestedunderthePublicSafetyAct.Pre-censorshipwasimposed.Later
it
tookformofanadvisorysystem.APP(AssociatedPressofPakistan)wastakenoverby.thegovernmentPPL:OnA.E_ri118,195?GovernmenttookoverProgressivePapersLimitedonthechargesofcontainingnewslikelytoendangerthe.securityofPakistan.
NPT
ZarnirNiaziwroteaboutNPTin"PressinChains","Trustassumedtheroleofofficialspokesmanandtoedtheofficiallinewithoutanyqualm.......thewatchdogofyesterdayturnedintolapdogsoftheestablishment."NPTacquired
12
newspapersinEnglish,UrduandBengali.Therewardsforthemwere:.
1.
IncomeofNPTwastaxfree
2.
Betterworkingconditionsandfacilities3.Gotthelion'sshareofgovernmentadvertisements
PressLaws
In1959,PressCommissionrepo~.J1.lawsaffectingthepressfully~rtially.In
All
gust,federalcabinetapprovedtherecommendationsofthePressCommission.
It
decidedtoenactacollectivelaw.So,tressandPublicaUonOrdinancewasimplemented.on
~i1261
1960.Thethenlawmnusterexpressed
is
opinionabouttheordinancethattheworkingofnewspapersandpublishinghousescanbe-controlledbythenewordinance.Othermajorbrutalactsagainstnewspapersandjournalists
included
threemonthsdetentionofnews
edi
rofImrozandEditorof
Mujahid
underSafetyActin
·lC)59.
UnidentifiedmengUllileown_newsmanagerPPILaho%.ZameerQureshiinJanuary1965.InNovember1963,governmentbannedKohistanand:arrestedNasim
l-lijazi.
InAugust1964,weekly
Outlook
Karachiand
lqdam
LahorewereIorccdtodosedown.TheNewYorkTimescommentedonAugust13,
"ACl'.r
thiaction,notasinglenewspaperinWestP·akistanislefttocrllld~('
govornn:u!I1t
pelletis".'The
PreAS
Advice
Sys~em_wasintroduced
\HI.'Pplt·IUhl·1'
H,I'}(~5
,lilt!
.J
cer
Ill'll
I
PI'PHS
(·onfn~H.ativ·oun
il
was

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