Mixtures can be separated into their constituents by using
(i.e. nochemical reaction involved). Separation techniques are physical methods. Which techniqueto use depends on the different properties of the constituents? That is, different states,solubility, boiling and melting points. Below lists some of the most common separationtechniques:
- To separate different coloured dyes. The dyes travel up thechromatography paper at different distances before they cannot remain in solution.The more soluble dyes move further up than the less soluble ones, hence separatingfrom each other.
- to separate and collect a liquid from a solution of a soluble solid. Thesolution is heated in a flask until the liquid boils. The vapor produced passes into thecondenser where it is cooled and condenses to a liquid. The pure liquid (distillate) iscollected in a beaker.
- This method is suitable to separate a soluble solid from a liquid. If thesolution is heated, the liquid evaporates leaving the solid behind.
- This is a special type of distillation used to separate amixture of liquids. Different liquids boil at different temperatures. When heated,they boil off and condense at different times. The apparatus features afractionating column, which ensures that only the liquid boils at its boiling point willpass into the condenser.
- To separate an insoluble solid from a liquid. The solid remains in thefilter paper and the liquid goes through the paper into the beaker.Some of the example mixtures that can be separated using the above mentionedtechniques:(1) separating dyes in inks, or chlorophyll in plants (ethanol as solvent) - chromatography;(2) separating sand from water - filtration;(3) separating ethanol and water - fractional distillation;(4) separating water from ink - simple distillation;(5) separating salt from water - evaporation