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Methods of separating mixtures

Methods of separating mixtures

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Mixtures can be separated into their constituents by using
physical methods
(i.e. nochemical reaction involved). Separation techniques are physical methods. Which techniqueto use depends on the different properties of the constituents? That is, different states,solubility, boiling and melting points. Below lists some of the most common separationtechniques:
Chromatography
- To separate different coloured dyes. The dyes travel up thechromatography paper at different distances before they cannot remain in solution.The more soluble dyes move further up than the less soluble ones, hence separatingfrom each other.
Distillation
- to separate and collect a liquid from a solution of a soluble solid. Thesolution is heated in a flask until the liquid boils. The vapor produced passes into thecondenser where it is cooled and condenses to a liquid. The pure liquid (distillate) iscollected in a beaker.
Evaporation
- This method is suitable to separate a soluble solid from a liquid. If thesolution is heated, the liquid evaporates leaving the solid behind.
Fractional Distillation
- This is a special type of distillation used to separate amixture of liquids. Different liquids boil at different temperatures. When heated,they boil off and condense at different times. The apparatus features afractionating column, which ensures that only the liquid boils at its boiling point willpass into the condenser.
Filtration
- To separate an insoluble solid from a liquid. The solid remains in thefilter paper and the liquid goes through the paper into the beaker.Some of the example mixtures that can be separated using the above mentionedtechniques:(1) separating dyes in inks, or chlorophyll in plants (ethanol as solvent) - chromatography;(2) separating sand from water - filtration;(3) separating ethanol and water - fractional distillation;(4) separating water from ink - simple distillation;(5) separating salt from water - evaporation
 
Diagrams below show suggested experiment setting for the various separation techniques
.
FiltrationEvaporation
In chromatography technique, only a small amount of mixturesamples are required, often as little as a drop. The conceptbehind this techniques is that different constituent in amixture have different solubility. As the solvent moves up thepaper the less soluble constituent will travel at a slower ratethan those of more soluble constituents. Hence the mixture willeventually separate into different colored spots as the solventmoves to the top. Sometimes, more sophisticated medium isused, such as thin plastic sheets coated with very fine pure aluminium oxide.Diagram on the left shows equipment set-up for fractional distillation. For normaldistillation, the set-up is similar, exceptthat the fractionating column is beingremoved. The curving structure of thefractionating column is to increase thesurface area and encourage condensationof liquids with higher boiling points.Sometimes the column consists of a tubetightly packed with glass beads.Some porcelain chips should be added intothe conical flask to prevent hot spots andsudden boiling. The thermometer readingensures that suitable temperature isreached at the boiling point of the desiredliquid to condense out. This should be theliquid with a lower boiling point in themixture.
 
Below shows an example Experiment Worksheet for separation of water from a salt (Time: about 1 hour).
1. Question (initial assessment prior to experiment)
Does salt dissolve in water? (YES)What is the boiling point of water (100°C)Which separation technique is suitable to separate salt and water ? (Distillation)Draw a labelled diagram for the experiment
.
2. Set up the experiment, as shown in the diagram drawn.
- Make sure that the water going into the condenser is from the lower inlet.- The condenser should be supported by a clamp and stand.- Stop the experiment once you collect a reasonable amount of liquid in the beaker.Observe the progress of the experiment and write down the observation.(a) What do you observe inside the flask at 100°C?(b) What do you observe in the condenser at 100°C?(c) What do you collect in the beaker?(d) What is remained in the flask?
3. Questions and further discussions.
These questions can be tricky. They stimulate pupils' interest and give further understanding about thesubject.1. What separation technique do we use if we are to separate water from a solution of an insoluble solid? Ca you name one insoluble solid in water?2. Can we use Evaporation to separate water from the salt solution for this experiment? Why?3. If the salt solution contains another soluble solid (say sugar), do you think the experiment would becarried out differently in order to get the same result?4. How do you know that the liquid collected in the beaker is water?5. What are the common names for the three states of water?
Methods of SeparatingMixtures

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RogerSarfo added this note
This is the best for a project
Daniel Caligagan added this note
ung process nya
Daniel Caligagan added this note
ano po ang chromotography
BhOxzs Chav added this note
tenchu po
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