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Em 2

# Em 2

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Published by: Bala Subramanian on Oct 12, 2011

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10/12/2011

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Electrical Machines-II
Question Bank .
1. a) Explain the working principle of transformer and derive the emf equation.b) A single phase 50 Hz transformer has 100 turns on the primary and 400 turns on the secondary winding. The net cross-sectionalarea of core is 250 cm
2
. If the primary winding is connected to a 230 V 50 Hz supply, determinei. The EMF induced in the secondary windingii. The maximum value of flux density in the core. ( Aug/Sep 2007 Set 1,Apr/May 2006 Set 1,Nov/Dec-2004 Set 1)2. a) Prove that the EMF induced in the windings of the transformer will lag behind the flux by 90
0
.b) Explain how equivalent circuit of transformer can be obtained?(Aug/Sept 2007 Set 2, Apr/May 2006 Set 1, Apr/May 2007 Set1, Nov/Dec 2005 Set 2, Apr/May 2005 Set 1, 2)3. Explain the principle of operation of transformer. Deduce its equivalent circuit.(Aug/Sept 2007 Set 3, Apr/May 2007 Set 2, 3, Sept2006 Set 1, 3)4. a) Give the constructional differences between a core type and shell type transformers. How the iron losses are minimized.b) A single phase transformer has turns ratio of 144/432 and operates at maximum flux of 7.5 x 10−3 wb at 50 Hz. When on noload the transformer takes 0.24 KVA at a power factor of 0.26 lagging from the supply. If the transformer supplies a load of 1.2 KVAat a power factor of 0.8 lagging, determinei. Magnetizing current.ii. Primary currentiii. Primary power factor (Aug/Sept 2007 Set 4, Nov/Dec 2005 Set 3)5. a) What are the various methods to reduce the leakage flux in transformer.b) Draw the phasor diagram of a single phase transformer with load having a leading power factor and explain. ( Apr/May 2006 Set2, Nov/Dec 2004 Set 3)6. a) Explain why hysterisis and eddy current losses occur in a transformer.b) A transformer on load takes 1.5 amps at a power factor of 0.2 lagging when connected across 50 Hz 230 V supply. The ratiobetween primary and secondary number of turns is 3. Calculate the value of primary current when secondary is supplying a current of 40A at a power factor of 0.8 lagging. Neglect the voltage drop in the windings. Draw the relevant phasor diagram.(Apr/May 2006 Set4, Apr/May 2007 Set 4, Apr/May 2005 Set 3)7. a) Draw the phasor diagram of a transformer on no load and explain the function of active and reactive components of no loadcurrent of transformer.b) Explain why transformer rating will be given in KVA but not in KW. (Sept 2006 Set 2,Nov/Dec 2005 Set 1,Apr/May 2005 Set 4)8. a) Explain the functions of the following in a transformeri. Breatherii. Conservatoriii. Oilb) Draw and explain phasor diagram of transformer on lagging load. (Sept 2006 Set 4, Nov/Dec 2004 Set 2)9 a) Explain how equivalent circuit of transformer can be obtainedb) The constants of a single phase 50HZ 2200/220V transformer are as followsH.V side:r1=0.21
,x1=3.84Rc1 =4800
.xm1=3500
L.V side:r2=0.006
,x2=0.002

Find the equivalent circuit parameters referred to(i)

H.V side and(ii)

L.V side10 a) Discuss how will you perform O.C and S.C test on a single phase transformer in the laboratory(b) the maximum efficiency of a 500Kva ,3300/500V 50Hz,single phase transformer is 97% and 3/4
th
full load and unity power factor. if the impedance drop is 10% calculate the regulation at full load and 0.8pf lagging (set 1 April 09)11 a) what precaution should be observed during the operation on load tap changerb) Explain the function of centre tapped reactor in on-load tap changerc) Describe one type of on-load tape changer with proper sequence of operation for changing the voltage12 explain the following with respect to single phase transformeri)

Coreii)

Windingiii)

Methods of coolingiv)

Conservator and bushingb) a single phase transformer is connected to a230V ,50Hz supply the net cross –sectional area of the core is 50cm2 the number of turns of the primary is 460 and the secondary is 80.detrmine i)transformation ratio ii)peak value of the flux density in the coreiii)e.m.f in the secondary winding (set2-april-2009)13) a)derive EMF equation of a1-phase transformerb) a transformer has a primary windings of800 turns and a secondary of 200turns .when load current on the secondary is 80A at0.8 p.f lagging .determine the no-load current of the transformer and the phase angle with respect to the voltage (set-3 april-2009)14 a) explain how do you minimize the hystresis and eddy current losses in a sigle phase transformerb)when asingle phase transformer is supplied at 400v ,50Hz ,the hysteresis losses found to be 320watts and eddy current losses isfound to be 250watts .determine the hysteresis loss and eddy current losses when the transformer is supplied at 800v,100Hz (set-4April-2009)
UNIT-II
1. a) Explain various losses and derive the condition for maximum efficiency of a transformerb) The efficiency at unity power factor of 6600/384 volts 100 KVA 50 Hz single phase transformer is 98% both at full load and athalf full load. The power factor on no load is 0.2 and the full load regulation at a lagging power factor of 0.8 is 4 %. Draw theequivalent circuit referred to L.V. side and insert all the values. ( Aug/Sep 2007 Set 1, 2, April 2009/set-4 Sept 2006 Set 1, 2 ,Nov/Dec 2005 Set 4 )

2. a) Define efficiency and regulation of a transformer. Show how the power factor affects both of them.b) The maximum efficiency of 50 KVA transformer is 97.4 % and occurs at 90 % of the full load. Calculate the efficiency of transformer ati.) Full load 0.8 power factor laggingii.) Half full load 0.9 power factor (Aug/Sep 2007 Set 3, Apr/May 2006 Set 1,2, Apr/May 2007 Set 3
,
4,Sept 2006 Set 3,

Nov/Dec2005 Set 1, 2, 3, Nov 2004 Set 3)

3. a) Write a short note on All day efficiency of the transformer.b) Find the All day efficiency of single phase transformer having maximum efficiency of 98 % at 15 KVA at UPF and loaded asfollows.12 hours — 2 KW at 0.5 power factor lagging6 hours — 12 KW at 0.8 power factor lagging6 hours — no load (Aug/Sep 2007 Set 4, Apr/May 2006 Set 3, Apr/May 2007 Set 1)

4. A 40 KVA single phase transformer has got maximum efficiency of 97 % at 80 % of full load at UPF. During the day, the load onthe transformer is as follows.No. of hours Load Power factor9 6 KW 0.6 lag8 25 KW 0.8 lag7 30 KW 0.9 lagDetermine the All day efficiency of the transformer. (Apr/May 2006 Set 4, Sept 2006 Set 4,April/ May 2005 Set 1)5. a) Derive the condition for zero voltage regulation. Also show that the magnitude of maximum voltage regulation equals to perunit value of leakage impedance.b) A 20 KVA 2000/200 V single phase transformer has the following parameters.H. V. Winding: R1 = 3 , X1 = 5.3, L. V. Winding: R2 = 0.05 , X2 = 0.1Find the voltage regulation ati.) At a power factor of 0.8 lagging ii.) UPFiii.) 0.707 power factor leading (Apr/May 2007 Set 2, April/ May 2005 Set 2, 4, Nov 2004 Set 2)6. a) Explain how the iron losses and copper losses are affected with change in load on the transformer.b) Find the All Day efficiency of 1500 KVA transformer whose copper and iron losses at full load are 4.5 KW and 3.2 KWrespectively. During a day of 24 hours it is loaded as follows:No. of hours Load Power factor6 1200 KW 0.8 lag10 900 KW 0.75 lag4 300 KW 0.8 lag4 0 0 (April/May -2005 Set 3)7. a) Derive the expression for voltage regulation of a transformer from the simplified approximate equivalent circuit and obtaincondition for zero regulation.b) The primary and secondary windings of 30 KVA,6000/230V transformer have resistances of 10
and 0.016
respectively.The total reactance of transformer referred to primary is 23
. Calculate the percentage regulation of transformer when supplying fullload current at a power factor of 0.8 lagging. (Nov/Dec-2004
Set
1)8. a) A single phase 120 KVA 2000/200 V 50 Hz transformer has impedance drop of 9% and resistance drop of 4.5 %. Findi) The regulation at 0.8 power factor lagging on full load.ii) At what power factor is the regulation zero.

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