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Conventional symbol timing synchronization algorithms show improper performance in low SNR values. In this paper a new low complexity and efficient symbol timing synchronization (ESTS) algorithm is proposed for MB-OFDM UWB systems. The proposed algorithm locates the start of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) window during packet/frame synchronization (PS/FS) sequences of the received signal. First, a cross correlation based function is defined to determine the time instant of the useful and successfully detected OFDM symbol. The threshold value in detection of the OFDM symbol is predetermined by considering the trade-off between the probability of false alarming and missed detection. The exact boundary of the FFT window for each OFDM symbol is estimated by a maximum likelihood metric and choosing the argument of the peak value. Verifying the estimated timing offset is the last step to locate the start of the FFT window. The proposed algorithm shows great improvement in the MSE, synchronization probability and bit error rate metrics compared with those of earlier works.

Conventional symbol timing synchronization algorithms show improper performance in low SNR values. In this paper a new low complexity and efficient symbol timing synchronization (ESTS) algorithm is proposed for MB-OFDM UWB systems. The proposed algorithm locates the start of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) window during packet/frame synchronization (PS/FS) sequences of the received signal. First, a cross correlation based function is defined to determine the time instant of the useful and successfully detected OFDM symbol. The threshold value in detection of the OFDM symbol is predetermined by considering the trade-off between the probability of false alarming and missed detection. The exact boundary of the FFT window for each OFDM symbol is estimated by a maximum likelihood metric and choosing the argument of the peak value. Verifying the estimated timing offset is the last step to locate the start of the FFT window. The proposed algorithm shows great improvement in the MSE, synchronization probability and bit error rate metrics compared with those of earlier works.

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2011

A New Efficient Symbol Timing SynchronizationScheme for MB-OFDM UWB Systems

Reza Shahbazian

Department of Electrical EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehran, IranShahbazian@elec.iust.ac.ir

Bahman Abolhassani

Department of Electrical EngineeringIran University of Science and TechnologyTehran, IranAbolhassani@iust.ac.ir

Abstract

— Conventional symbol timing synchronizationalgorithms show improper performance in low SNR values. Inthis paper a new low complexity and efficient symbol timingsynchronization (ESTS) algorithm is proposed for MB-OFDMUWB systems. The proposed algorithm locates the start of FastFourier Transform (FFT) window during packet/framesynchronization (PS/FS) sequences of the received signal. First, across correlation based function is defined to determine the timeinstant of the useful and successfully detected OFDM symbol.The threshold value in detection of the OFDM symbol ispredetermined by considering the trade-off between theprobability of false alarming and missed detection. The exactboundary of the FFT window for each OFDM symbol isestimated by a maximum likelihood metric and choosing theargument of the peak value. Verifying the estimated timing offsetis the last step to locate the start of the FFT window. Theproposed algorithm shows great improvement in the MSE,synchronization probability and bit error rate metrics comparedwith those of earlier works.

Keywords- MB-OFDM, Synchronization, Ultra Wide Band,Fast Fourier Transform, Maximum Likelihood.

I.

I

NTRODUCTION

(H

EADING

1)

Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology is the main candidatefor short distance (<10 m) and high data rate (53-480 Mbps)communications in Wireless Personal Area Networks(WPAN). Multi band orthogonal frequency divisionmultiplexing (MB-OFDM) based communication scheme is themost noteworthy, among the several proposals for efficient useof the 7.5 GHz bandwidth allocated for UWB technology.MB-OFDM is the combination of OFDM modulation anddata transmission using frequency-hopping techniques. In thismethod, all the available bandwidth (3.1-10.6 GHz) is dividedinto 14 frequency bands each with 528 MHz of bandwidth.These 14 frequency bands are categorized in five groups. Eachof the first four groups has three frequency bands and the fifthgroup contains only two frequency bands. Data is transmittedover different frequency bands using a Time-Frequency code(TFC), which causes frequency diversity and multiple accesscapability [1].OFDM systems have the advantage of being able to operateas a set of N (number of subcarriers in the system) parallellinks over flat fading channels. However, the performance of non-ideal OFDM systems is degraded by imperfections caused by timing offset, improper number of cyclic prefix (CP) andfrequency offsets. Among all the imperfections, effect of timing offset on the system performance and bit error rate ismuch more sever. Synchronization techniques for narrowbandOFDM systems utilize maximum correlation between thereceived signal and training timing symbols [2-3]. All suchtechniques assume that the first received multipath component(MPC) is the strongest one. Therefore, in a channel with densemultipath effects, a delayed stronger component, which isshown in “Fig 1”, may cause erroneous timing synchronization,which leads to Inter Symbol Interference (ISI), destroys theorthogonality of OFDM subcarriers, and degrades the overall performance [4].Several algorithms are proposed for timing synchronizationin MB-OFDM systems [5-9]. In [5], the proposed algorithm(FTA) detects the significant path by comparing the difference between two consecutive accumulated energy samples at thereceiver against a predetermined threshold. However, thethreshold is only determined by the probability of false alarm,while other important error measures such as the misseddetection probability is not exploited. Further, thecomputational complexity is high due to the large amount of multiplications involved in the algorithm. In [6], a correlation based symbol timing synchronization (CBTS) has also beenreported. The idea is similar to that of [5] and estimates the firstsignificant multipath of the received signal by comparing thedifference between two successive correlated MB-OFDMsymbols against a predetermined threshold. Compared withthat of [5], the computational complexity is reduced and performances in terms of both the mean square error (MSE) of timing offset and the perfect synchronization probability areimproved. These two algorithms [5-6] cannot operate properlyat low SNR values due to imperfections in autocorrelation property of the base sequence and the dense multipath channelenvironments. Combination of the autocorrelation function andrestricted and normalized differential cross-correlation (RNDC)with a threshold-based detection is used in [7] to find thetiming offset of the OFDM symbol. In [8], the proposedalgorithm utilizes a maximum likelihood function to estimatethe timing offset. Concentration of the algorithm in [8] is onfrequency diversity. Moreover its computational complexity israther high. In this paper, a modified and Efficient SymbolTiming Synchronization (ESTS) algorithm for MB-OFDM

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2011

UWB systems is proposed, while utilizes time domainsequences (TDS) to estimate the timing offset. Thecomputational complexity of the proposed algorithm is reduced by simplification in correlation based and maximum likelihoodfunctions. The organization of this paper is as follows: inSection II, we present the MB-OFDM system, signal modeland characteristics of an UWB channel. In Section III, wedescribe the proposed algorithm for MB-OFDM timingsynchronization and Section IV shows simulation results of our proposed algorithm and compares them with those reported in[5-9]. Important concluding remarks are made in Section V.

Figure 1. Impulse response of an UWB channel [9]

II.

MB-OFDM

S

YSTEM

M

ODEL

A.

MB-OFDM Signal Model

Synchronization in MB-OFDM systems is data-aided [1].In standard preamble structure, the first 21 packetsynchronization (PS) sequences are used for packet detection,AGC stabilization, coarse timing and frequencysynchronization. The next 3 frame synchronization (FS)sequences are meant for a fine timing and frequencysynchronization.These sequences are followed by 6 channel estimation (CE)sequences as shown in “Fig 2”. Depending on the time-frequency code, a particular preamble pattern is selected whichis shown in “Table 1”. For a given TFC the PS and FSsequences have the same magnitude but opposite polarity. The preamble structure for TFC 1 and 2 is shown in “Fig 2”. Delay period is defined as the minimum number of symbol timingdifference in the same frequency band. As an illustration, thedelay period=3 for TFC 1 or 2, delay period=6 for TFC 3 or TFC 4 patterns and delay period=1 for TFC 5.Consider

,

()

sn

Sk

as k

th

sample of n

th

transmitted OFDMsymbol, which is given by.

,

()()().

sncb

SkSnSk

In “(1)”,

()

b

Sk

is the k

th

sample of the nth symbol [11].

()

b

Sk

is a time domain base sequence that is chosen accordingto the TFC employed and

()

c

Sn

is the spreading sequence for the nth symbol and 1,2,...,

kM

and

1,2,...,

nP

, which M isthe number of useful samples in one OFDM symbol and P isthe total number of transmitted symbols in

PS

,

FS

and

CE

sequences. MB-OFDM symbols prepared by suffixing 32null samples called zero padded (M

ZP

) and 5 null guardsamples called (M

g

) to FFT/IFFT output sequences of length Mwhich is considered to be 128 samples according to the frameformat [11]. The total length of M+M

zp

+M

g

samples of oneMB-OFDM symbol is denoted by MT, which is equal to 165samples.

Figure 2. Packet model for a MB-OFDM system [1]TABLE I.

TFC PATTERN

I

N

MB-OFDM

SYSTEMS

[1]TFC Number Preamble Number TFC1 1 1 2 3 1 2 32 2 1 3 2 1 3 23 3 1 1 2 2 3 34 4 1 1 3 3 2 25 5 1 1 1 1 1 16 5 2 2 2 2 2 27 5 3 3 3 3 3 3

B.

UWB Channel Model

IEEE802.15.3 channel modeling sub-committee hasspecified 4 different channel models (CM1-CM4) dependingon transmission distances based on a modified saleh-valenzuela(S-V) model [10]. UWB channel model is a cluster-basedmodel, where individual ray shows independent fadingcharacteristics. An UWB channel not only shows frequencydependence of instantaneous channel transfer functions, butalso the variations of averaged transfer function caused bydifferent attenuations of different frequency component of anUWB signal [12].Impulse response model of an UWB channel can berepresented as,

,,,00

() exp() ().

LK klkllkl lk

htajtT

(2)In “(2)”,

,

{}

kl

a

and

,

{}

kl

are tap weighting coefficientsand tap phases of the

th

k

component in l

th

cluster respectively,and ()

ht

represents small scale fading amplitude. Delay of

th

k

MPC toward arrival time of l

th

cluster,

{}

l

T

, is shown with

,

{}

kl

. We denote

()(0),(1),...,(1)

thhhL

h

as the channel

Identify applicable sponsor/s here.

(sponsors)

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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2011

impulse response with L resolvable multipath components. Wealso define ()

nt

as a zero mean additive white Gaussian noise(AWGN) with variance

2

n

. The received signal with timingoffset equal to

could be described as the following,

10

()().()().

L si

rkSkhink

(3)III.

P

ROPOSED

ESTS

A

LGORITHM

The main objective in the symbol timing synchronization isto find the timing offset of the received symbol. Our proposedalgorithm contains two steps, coarse and fine synchronization.The aim in coarse synchronization is to determine the timeinstant while a useful OFDM symbol has been successfullydetected. In fine synchronization, we use the gained boundaryin coarse synchronization to locate the exact starting point of the FFT window. To do synchronization, we use modifiedcross correlation based functions, which perform better thanauto correlation functions, in low SNR values. The crosscorrelation function in general could be defined as,

10

*

()().().

M bk

P

FrkSk

(4)In “(4)”, the operator

*

.

represents complex conjugatetranspose of the signal and

P

F

indicates the crosscorrelationfunction between the received signal and the base sequence.The estimated and coarse boundary for timing offset could befound by the following Maximum Likelihood metric,

22

argmaxargmax,

P R

F F

(5)Where we define

10

1220

()

1()().2

M k

M Rbk

F

rkSk

(6)Computational complexity in this method is high. As shownin [13] we can use a simplified timing metric, which is a goodapproximation of “(5)”, described as,

()Re(())Im(()).

Fpp

FF

(7)If the base sequence is characterized by a perfectautocorrelation property, there is only one significant peak located at the first received sample. However, by imperfectautocorrelation property of the base sequence, as indicated in[1], there exist some undesired peaks at the other sampleinstants. By considering the AWGN and channel variations,these undesired peaks may be amplified and their values arecomparable with that of the first peak corresponding to thedesired symbol boundary. So the crosscorrelation function maytrigger false alarm and the algorithms, which use these kinds of functions [5-9] show poor system performances. In order toreduce false alarm probability especially at low SNR values,we modify the introduced metric in “(7)” as the following,

()Re(())Im(()).

pp

FF

(8)The defined function performs well at all SNR values if it isassumed that the packet is successfully detected and the OFDMsequences are confirmed to be received. In practical scenariosthere exists a noise sequence at the start of every frame [14]which makes us to do a kind of packet detection at the start of timing synchronization algorithm but Computationalcomplexity is rather high and needs M multiplications just inone crosscorrelation function. So, we reduce the complexity bysimplifying “(4)” as described below,

10

()().sgn.

()

M k

Pb

Frk

Sk

(9)Define

1

,1,...,1

m

VmmM

as the time index thatcontains the sign of

(1)

th

m

, M sample base sequence. Also,define

0

0,1,...,1

VM

as the time index that contains the signof M sample base sequence. We use M instead of M

T

becausethere is no useful information in

M

ZP

and

M

g

sequences

, i.e.,

()0

bT

SkMkM

. We assume that the channel and the noiseare uncorrelated. The cross correlation function at time instant

mk

is given by:

10

.sgn()

M bk

ErmkSk

(10)This can be easily shown that by expanding “(10)” we candrive the following formula,

1100

().().sgn().sgn().().

MmLcbbbkk

SnSmkSmkSkEhk

(11)In “(11)”, when0

m

, a negative and positive peak of thecrosscorrelation is generated if

()1

c

Sn

and

()1

c

Sn

respectively. It means that when the time index that containsthe first M sample of the received signal is considered, the peak value is generated. So, we use two sets of

0

V

and

1

V

for symboltiming offset estimation.As the timing offset decreases the value of

()

in “(8)”increases. We define

N

S

as the index of a received M samplesequence and

()

N

S

as the time instant of the first sample for that sequence.

arg,

NN

SS

(12)where

ReIm

NpNpN

SFSFS

and

P

F

isdefined in “(9)”. Parameter

in “(12)” is the threshold whichis predetermined by considering the trade-off between the probability of false alarming and the probability of misseddetection. If the OFDM symbol is successfully detected thevalue

N

S

is used as a reference symbol boundary for finesynchronization. Due to the modified S-V channel model, thefirst arriving path may not be the strongest one. As a result,using only the conventional cross-correlation function will

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