(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,Vol. 9, No. 9, September 2011
length,
T
dms
. The incoherent integration accumulates
L
resultsof
T
I
-ms coherent integrations to get the total integration,
LT
I
ms. The coherent integration is obtained by ﬁrst gen-erating a
T
I
/N
f
d
-ms partial coherent integration, and thengenerating the
T
I
-ms coherent integration. The partial coherentintegrations, at the
N
τ
possible code delays, are generated in
N
step
steps. In each step, the partial coherent integrations aregenerated at a number of adjacent code delays equal to oneblock size,
S
block
. So,
N
step
=
N
τ
/S
block
. The arrangementof the blocks of the replica code and the received signalrelative to each other determines which
S
block
partial coherentintegrations are generated in each step. Each
S
block
partialcoherent integrations are generated by applying circular corre-lation (FFT/IFFT) between each two corresponding blocks of the replica code and the received signal.Each CM code period has exactly one data bit, which has anunknown value. To avoid correlating over bit boundaries, a bitsynchronization method is implemented within the acquisition.The idea of the algorithm is to search for the start of the codein the received signal by ﬁxing the samples of the replica codeand moving forward the samples of the received signal, untilthe start of the received code coincides with the start of thereplica code. This is done instead of searching directly for thecode delay in the received signal by allowing the correlationto be calculated using samples from two adjacent receivedcodes, which could have data bits with different polaritiesthat will result in correlation loss. The aforementioned ideais implemented by arranging the replica code’s blocks to startat the beginning of the code and ﬁxing that arrangement at allthe
N
step
steps, and shifting the received signal’s blocks ineach step. The received signal’s blocks are arranged such thatthe ﬁrst block contains the code delays at which the partialcoherent integrations are generated. After each step, the ﬁrstblock is discarded, the remaining blocks are shifted forward,and an additional block is added at the end of the blocks.
N
f
d
+
N
steps
−
1
blocks are needed to ﬁnd the
N
τ
partialcoherent integrations.The process of generating
N
τ
partial coherent integrationsis repeated
L
times, once for each
T
I
-ms integrations. In eachrepetition, the last
(
N
step
−
1)
blocks used in the generationof the previous coherent integrations are the same as theﬁrst
(
N
step
−
1)
blocks used in the generation of the currentcoherent integrations. This is because the generation of twoconsecutive coherent integrations, for the same possible delay,should use two consecutive
T
I
-ms lengths of the signal. Sincecircular correlation involves calculating FFT for each block of the received signal, then FFT for each of the
(
N
step
−
1)
overlapping blocks is calculated only once. The algorithm isillustrated in Fig. 1.The algorithm’s implementation details are as follows. Thereceived signal in (1) is converted to baseband to produce
r
c
(
t
δ
) =
r
(
t
δ
) exp
{−
j
2
πf
IF
t
δ
}
.
(3)The whole Doppler range is divided into a small number,
N
range
, of ranges. Deﬁne
f
mid
i
as the middle frequency of
Fig. 1. Illustration of the CM-ABS algorithm.
the
i
th
range, and
N
f
di
as the number of Doppler bins in the
i
th
range. The indexes of the ﬁrst Doppler bin and the lastDoppler bin, respectively, in each range are
λ
s
i
=
i
−
1
j
=1
N
f
dj
+ 1
,
(4)
λ
e
i
=
i
j
=1
N
f
di
.
(5)The following items are repeated
L
times, once for eachcoherent integration:
1.
N
range
versions of the replica code are generated. Eachversion is compensated, in length, by one of the
f
mid
i
fre-quencies. The un-compensated length of each version is
T
I
ms. The model for each version is
C
LM
0
D i
(
t
δ
,f
mid
i
) =
C
LM
0
t
δ
1 +
f
mid
i
f
L
2
.
(6)Where,
C
LM
0
Di
is the
i
th
replica code version.
C
LM
0
isan un-compensated code, which consists of the CM codemultiplexed chip-by-chip with zeros. The samples of eachversion is divided into
N
f
d
blocks, each block has a sizeof
S
block
samples. From the blocks of the
i
th
version, only
N
f
di
blocks are preserved, and the others are discarded. Thepreserved blocks, of the
i
th
version, are those located at offsetsfrom
λ
s
i
to
λ
e
i
. All the preserved blocks are arranged together,where their order is maintained, i.e. blocks coming from the
i
th
replica code are located at offsets from
λ
s
i
to
λ
e
i
. Eachblock is padded with
S
block
zeros at its end. The complexconjugate of the FFT of each block is calculated. Assume
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