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PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signal Using Error Correcting Code and Selective Mapping

PAPR Reduction of OFDM Signal Using Error Correcting Code and Selective Mapping

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Published by ijcsis
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique is a promising technique to offer high data rate and reliable communications over fading channels. The main implementation disadvantage of OFDM is the possibility of high peak to average power ratio (PAPR). This paper presents a novel technique to reduce the PAPR using errorcorrecting coding and selective mapping (SLM).We show that the probability of the PAPR of OFDM signal with 100 subcarriers.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) technique is a promising technique to offer high data rate and reliable communications over fading channels. The main implementation disadvantage of OFDM is the possibility of high peak to average power ratio (PAPR). This paper presents a novel technique to reduce the PAPR using errorcorrecting coding and selective mapping (SLM).We show that the probability of the PAPR of OFDM signal with 100 subcarriers.

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 International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
 PAPR REDUCTION OF OFDM SIGNAL USING ERROR CORRECTING CODE AND SELECTIVE MAPPING
AnshuECE DeptartmentMahrishi Markendeshwar UniversityMullana, Indiaguddal88@gmail.comEr. Himanshu SharmaLecturer, ECE DepartmentMaharishi Markendeshwar UniversityMullana, Indiahimanshu.zte@gmail.com
I.
 
ABSTRACT
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM)technique is a promising technique to offer high data rate andreliable communications over fading channels. The mainimplementation disadvantage of OFDM is the possibility of high peak to average power ratio (PAPR). This paper presentsa novel technique to reduce the PAPR using errorcorrectingcoding and selective mapping (SLM).We show that theprobability of the PAPR of OFDM signal with 100 subcarriers.
 Keywords-OFDM,SLM,CCDF, PAPR, PAR.
II.
 
INTRODUCTION
OFDM, orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, is amulticarrier communication technique, where a single datastream is transmitted over a number of lower rate subcarriers.OFDM has become tangible reality, it has been employed forwire-line communications and also has been employed inwireless local area network (WLAN) e.g. IEEE 802.11. Otherapplications of OFDM are digital audio broadcasting (DAB)and digital video broadcasting (DVB).Unfortunately, OFDM has the drawback of a potentiallyhigh peak to average power ratio (PAPR). Since a multicarriersignal consists of a number of independent modulatedsubcarriers that can cause a large PAPR when the subcarriersare added up coherently.To reduce the PAPR different techniques were proposed.These techniques can be categorized into the following,clipping and filtering [1], coding [2], phasing [3], scrambling[4], interleaving [5], and companding [6].In this paper we propose and examine a technique forreducing the probability of a high PAPR, based on part on amethod proposed in [1] and [8]. This technique is a variationof selective mapping (SLM) [1], in which a set of independentsequences are generated by some means from the originalsignal, and then the sequence with the lowest PAPR istransmitted. To generate these sequences we use code enencoder. Using error correcting coding will offer twoadvantages,significant PAPR reduction and astonishing biterror rate (BER) performance
.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: The problemof high PAPR of OFDM signal is briefly defined in section 2.Section 3 introduces the proposed technique. Some simulationresults are shown in section 4. Finally, the conclusions aredrawn in section 5.
III.
 
PROBLEM
 
DEFINITION
We suppose an OFDM transmission scheme, where a block of N complex symbols is first over-sampled using oversampling factor J and then transformed into time domain usingthe inverse fast Fourier transform (IFFT). This results in thefollowing signal:
 


 
(1)
 Where sk is the data to be transmitted and 1 < t < NJ.The PAPR is defined as the ratio between themaximum powers occurring in OFDM symbol to the averagepower of the same OFDM symbol:
 


(2)
Where
 E 
[
.
]
denotes expectation
.
When the OFDM signal with high PAPR passes through anon-linear device, (power amplifier working in the saturation
136http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
region), the signal will suffer significant non-linear distortion[9]. This non-linear distortion will result in in-band distortionand out-of-band radiation. The in-band distortion causessystem performance degradation and the out-of-band radiationcauses adjacent channel interference (ACI) that affectssystems working in the neighbour bands. To lessen the signaldistortion, it requires a linear power amplifier with largedynamicrange. However, this linear power amplifier has poorefficiency and is so expensive
.
Figure: 1 System modelIV.
 
SELECTIVE
 
MAPPING
 
USING
 
ERROR
 
CORRECTING
 
CODING
 
Selected mapping (SLM) is a specific scheme forPAPRreduction that was introduced in [13].SLM takesadvantage of the fact that the PAR of an OFDM signal is verysensitiveto phase shifts in the frequency-domain data. PARreduction is achieved by multiplying independent phasesequences to the original data and determining the PAR of each phasesequence /data combination. The combination withthe lowest PAR is transmitted. In other words, the datasequence X is element-wise phased by D N-length phasesequences,


 

 
(3)
 
Where d is an integer such that
  
Afterphasing, the D possible frequency-domain OFDM
 symbols
 
 


where
is the element-wisemultiplication.We assume that
 

 
 
(4)
 
So that
 

 
 
(5)
Define the D candidate time-domain OFDM symbols
 x(d) = IFFT{X(d)}.
Note that all of the candidate symbols carry thesame information. In order to achieve a PAPR reduction, thesymbol with the lowest PAPR is transmitted. We define
 
 
(6)
    

 
In SLM, we use log2 D bits side information to indicate thephase weighting. As this side information is of highestimportance to recover the data, it should be carefully protectedby channel coding.With
,
the transmitted signal is

. In the receiver,
X
canbe recovered with
 


 
(7)
 



 
To recover X it is necessary for the receiver to have a table of all

.The phase sequence combination that results in the lowestPAR of the time-domain signal is used for transmission. Herewe encode the information fist with forward error correctingcode and then do SLM. The technology combines SLM, whichaims at PAPR reduction, and coding(basically we usehamming code, rsc code, and convolution code), which areexcellent in error control and are play excellent role in furtherreduction in PAPR. In this paper we show comparison of allthe three coding with SLM
.
After coding the process is done just like what is applied onthe carriers in the usual SLM algorithm. The process is givenin figure1. Finally all of the different sequences, after serial toparallel conversion, pass through the IFFT block to produce Dblock of time domain signal. The block with the lowest PAPRis to be sent to the receiver through the channel.
V.
 
SIMULATION
 
RESULTS
 
In this section the results obtain through the simulations usingMATLAB are examined. Quarter phase shift keying (QPSK)is used. The results are given here in terms of PAPR-CCDF.First we show comparison of PAPR with SLM and the originalOFDM signal. Secondly the comparison with SLM and codedSLM.In the following the performance of the system for bothconventional SLM and coded are examined.
 A. CCDF-PAPR
Figure 1 shows the difference between the results of SLM andOriginal OFDM signal in terms of CCDF-PAPR. In this weconsider the OFDM signal with number of subcarriers N=64.The hamming encoder has constraint length K=16 is used.
 B. CCDF-PAPR
 
SelectorLabelInvertencodMappIFFTLabelb
1
…..b Binary
xxx 
137http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500
 
 International Journal of Computer Information Systems,
Figure 2 in this section, the performance of the system foreach coded SLM i.e. SLM using hamming code,SLM usingrsc code and SLM using convolution code. In this the OFDMsignal with number of subcarriers N=100 and hammingencoder has constraint lengthK=16 is used.
Figure2: Comparison between the original OFDM &SLMFigure3: Comparison among the various coding with SLMVI.
 
CONCLUSIONS
We have shown that, coding and SLM can be combined toreduce the PAPR of OFDM signal with quite moderateadditional complexity. The advantage of the proposed schemeis that, the coding is used for two purposes, error correctionand PAPR reduction. Here we see that combination of RScode and SLM gives the better results instead of hammingwith SLM and convolution with SLM as shown in fig 2.Thisreduces the hardware complexity of the system. An excellentstyle manual for science writers is [7].
VII.
 
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to express my gratitude toward those who havesupported me through the work 
.
First, I would like give mysincerest thanks to my guide, Er. Himanshu Sharma, for hisunreserved guidance, support and encouragement. He haslooked out for me at every time and has given me everyopportunity to succeed; for that, I am truly grateful. I considermyself lucky to be one of her students. I want to thank mythesis committee, Dr.AmitGarg and Dr. H.P Sinha, for takingthe time to review and critique my work. Additionally, I wouldlike to thank my fellow research group members for theirfriendship and insightful comments. Finally, I want to thank my family, who have supported me through every step of mylife.
 
VIII.
 
REFERENCES
[1] X. Li and L. J. Cimini Jr., ”Effects of clipping and filteringon the performance of OFDM,” IEEE Communication Letters,pp. 131-133, May 1998.[2] A. E. Jones, T. A. Wilkinson and S. K. Barton, ”Block coding scheme for reduction of peak to mean envelope powerratio of multicarrier transmission schemes,” Electronic Letters,pp. 2098-2099, Dec. 1994.[3] V. Tarokh and H. Jafakhani, ”On the computation andreduction of peak to average power ratio in multicarriercommunications,” Proc. IEEE 53rd Vehicular TechnologyConference, vol.2, pp. 37-44, Jan 2000.[4] P. Van Eetvelt, G. Wade and M. Tomlinson, ”Peak toaverage power reduction for OFDM schemes by selectivescrambling,” Electronic letters, vol. 32, pp. 1963-1994, Jan2000.[5] A. D. S. Jayalath and C. Tellambura ” The use of interleaving to reduce the peak to average power ratio of anOFDM signal,” Global TelecommunicationConference, 2000, GLOBECOM ’00. IEEE, vol. 1, pp. 82-86,Nov.-1 Dec. 2000.[6] Xiao Huang, Jianhua Lu, Justin Chuang, and JunliZheng,”Companding transform for the reduction of peak to averagepower ratio of OFDM signal,” IEEE Trans. On Common. vol.48, pp. 835-839, May 2001.[7] R. B¨auml, R. Fischer and J. Huber, ”Reducing the peak toaverage power ratio of multicarrier modulation by selectedmapping,” Elect. Letts., vol. 32, pp. 2056-2057, Oct. 1996.
138http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/ISSN 1947-5500

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