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Table Of Contents

2.1. DEFINITION AND HISTORY
2.2. APPLICATIONS OF CFD
2.3. VALIDATION OF CFD MODELS
2.4. ADVANTAGES OF CFD
2.5. CFD ANALYSIS PROCEDURE
2.5.1. Initial thinking
2.5.2. Geometry creation
2.5.3. Mesh generation
2.5.4. Flow specification
2.5.5. Calculation of the numerical solution
2.5.6. Results analysis
2.6. CFD METHODOLOGY
2.6.1. Equations describing fluids in motion
2.6.2. Discretisation
2.6.2.1. Finite-difference method
2.6.2.2. Finite-element method
2.6.2.3. Finite volume method
2.6.3. Producing a solution
2.7. COMMERCIAL CFD SOFTWARE
2.7.1. Pre-processing
2.7.2. Solving the equations
2.7.3. Post-processing
2.8. ANSYS CFX
2.9. DISCRETISATION METHODS
2.9.1. Transient term
2.9.2. Diffusion term
2.9.3. Convection term
2.9.4. Source term
2.9.5. Pressure-velocity coupling
2.10. SOLUTION STRATEGY
2.10.1. Solving the numerical equations
2.10.2. Controlling the iterative process
2.11. RESULTS ANALYSIS
2.11.1. X-Y charts
2.11.2. Contour plots
2.11.3. Streamlines
2.11.4. Particle tracks
2.11.5. Animation
NOMENCLATURE
REFERENCES
3.1. LITERATURE REVIEW
3.1.1. INTRODUCTION
3.1.2. EFFECTS OF VIBRATION ON NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
3.1.3. EFFECTS OF VIBRATION ON NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
3.2. THEORY
3.2.1. NON-NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
3.2.1.1. Definition and classification
3.2.1.2. Shear thinning fluids
3.2.1.3. Shear thickening fluids
3.2.1.4. Viscoplastic fluids
3.2.1.5. Flow rate and velocity profile for non-Newtonian fluids
3.2.2. FORMULATION OF CFD MODEL
Figure 3.3: Geometry of vibrated pipe: (a) general view; (b) pipe cross-section
3.3.2. GEOMETRY
3.3.3. MESH
3.3.4. FLOW SPECIFICATION
3.3.4.1. Steady state flow simulation
3.3.4.2. Vibrational flow simulation
3.3.4.3. Particle tracking simulation
3.4. VALIDATION OF CFD MODEL
3.4.1. VALIDATION OF STEADY STATE FLOW SIMULATIONS
3.4.1.1. Flow rate
3.4.1.2. Velocity profile
3.4.2. VALIDATION OF VIBRATIONAL FLOW SIMULATIONS
3.5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.5.1. NEWTONIAN FLUIDS
3.5.2. POWER LAW FLUIDS
3.5.2.1. Effect of vibration frequency, f
3.5.2.2. Effect of vibration amplitude, ΘΘΘΘ
3.5.2.3. Effect of flow behaviour index, n
3.5.2.4. Effect of fluid consistency index, k
3.5.3. VISCOPLASTIC FLUIDS
3.5.3.1. Bingham plastic fluids
3.5.3.2. Generalised power law or Herschel-Bulkley fluids
3.5.4. ULTRASONIC VIBRATION
3.5.5. TRANSVERSAL VIBRATION
3.5.5.1. Effect of vibration frequency
3.5.5.2. Effect of vibration amplitude, A
3.5.5.3. Effect of flow behaviour index, n
3.5.5.4. Effect of fluid consistency index, k
3.5.5.6. Effect of yield stress
3.5.6. COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT VIBRATION MODES
3.5.7. SECONDARY FLUID MOTION
3.5.8. PARTICLE TRACKING
3.5.8.1. Fluid motion near the pipe centre
3.5.8.2. Away from the pipe centre
3.6. CONCLUSIONS
4.1. LITERATURE REVIEW
4.1.1. HEAT TRANSFER IN THERMAL STERILISATION
4.1.2. ENHANCEMENT OF TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION AND HEAT
4.2. THEORY
4.2.1. FLUID RHEOLOGY AND VELOCITY PROFILES
4.2.2. INFLUENCE OF TEMPERATURE ON VISCOSITY
4.2.3. TEMPERATURE PROFILE
4.3.1. GEOMETRY
4.3.2. MESH
4.3.3. FLOW SPECIFICATION
4.3.3.1. Step (i) simulation
4.3.3.2. Step (ii) simulation
4.3.3.3. Step (iii) simulation
4.4. VALIDATION OF CFD MODEL
4.4.1. STEADY-STATE FLOW
4.4.2. VIBRATIONAL FLOW
4.5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
4.5.1. EFFECT OF VIBRATION AMPLITUDE
4.5.2. EFFECT OF VIBRATION FREQUENCY
4.5.3. EFFECT OF FLUID RHEOLOGY
4.5.3.1. Newtonian fluids
4.5.3.2. Non-Newtonian fluids
4.5.4. EFFECT OF PIPE LENGTH
4.5.5. EFFECTS ON VELOCITY PROFILE
4.6. CONCLUSIONS
5.1. LITERATURE REVIEW
5.1.1. MULTIPHASE SOLID-LIQUID FLOW
5.1.2. SOLID-LIQUID FOOD MIXTURES
5.1.3. SOLID-LIQUID VELOCITY PROFILES
5.1.3.1. Horizontal flow
5.1.3.2. Vertical flow
5.1.4. SOLID-LIQUID PRESSURE DROP
5.1.5. SUSPENSION VISCOSITY
5.1.6. MULTIPHASE SOLID-LIQUID CFD
5.2. THEORY
5.2.1. CARRIER FLUID RHEOLOGY
5.2.2. INTER-PHASE DRAG FORCE
5.2.3. PARTICLE SETTLING VELOCITY
5.2.4. LIFT FORCE
5.2.5. PARTICLE MIGRATION
5.2.6. SUSPENSION VISCOSITY
5.2.7. SOLID-LIQUID PRESSURE DROP
5.2.8. FORMULATION OF CFD MODEL
5.2.8.1. Modelling of two-phase flow
5.2.8.2. Model formulation
5.3. CFD SIMULATION
5.3.1. GEOMETRY
5.3.2. MESH
5.3.3. FLOW SPECIFICATION
5.3.3.1. Single-phase flow simulation
5.4.1.1. PEPT validation of solid phase velocity profile
5.4.1.2. Validation of pressure drop
5.4.2. VALIDATION RESULTS
5.4.2.1. Single-phase fluid flow
5.4.2.2. Two-phase flow: solid phase velocity profile
5.4.2.4. Two-phase flow: solid-liquid pressure drop
5.5. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
5.5.1. PARTICLE DIAMETER
5.6. CONCLUSIONS
6. CONCLUSIONS AND FURTHER WORK
6.1. CONCLUSIONS
6.2. FURTHER WORK
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Cfd Studies of Complex Fluid

Cfd Studies of Complex Fluid

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Published by Mô Dion

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Published by: Mô Dion on Oct 13, 2011
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