A motive, is an impulse that cause a person to act. Motivation is an internal proces that
make a person move a goal. Motivation. is like intelligence, can not be directly observed.
Motivation can only be inferred by noting a person\u2019s behavior.
Reasearchers have proposed theories that try to explain the human motivation. These
theories include drive reduction theoria and Maslow\u2019s hierarchy of needs theory.
1. The Intrinsic motivation: Is the motivation to act for the sake of the activity alone. For example: people have intrinsic motivation to write poetry,if they do it simply because they enjoy it.
2. The Extrinsic motivation: on the other hand, is the motivation to act for external rewars.For example: people have extrinsic motivation to write if they do so in the hope of getting published,being famous,or making money.
3. The Both or Incentives motivation : An incentive is an environmental stimulus that pulls people to act in a particular way. Getting an A on an exam to be an incentive that pulls a student toward studying.
1. First level or basic : physiological needs for food, water, safety, and security.
2. Second level: need for social interaction.
3. Third level : need for estreem,which include the need for respect from oneself and
Maslow believed people pay attention to higher needs only when lower needs are satisfied.
The critics argue that Maslow\u2019s theory doesn\u2019t explain why higher needs often motivate
people even when lower needs are unsafisfied.
Example: Ray lives in a very dangerous neighborhood and constantly worries about safety.
He make little money at his job in civil-right law, but he enjoy it because he believes that
his true calling is to fight injustice.
Critics also point out that people are sometimes simultaneously motivated by needs at
different levels. Example: Angie might be motivated to join a theater club both,because she
wants to be respected for her acting skill.
People have innate needs and learned needs, both of which are influenced by society and
culture. People have a limited number of innate needs, which include needs for food,water,
oxygen, and elimination of vastes. There are however a relatively large number of learned
needs,including needs for achievement,autonomy, and power. These needs are determined
by values,or people perceptions of what is important in life.
Hunger: Is a complicated motivation;people don\u2019t eat only because they need food.many
factors, both biological and environmental,influence hunger.These facors interat with
another in many ways.
Researchers believe certain genetic differences among individuals play a role in hunger.
The brain,the digestive, and hormones are all involved influencing hunger at the biological
level.The researchers theorize that people have a genetically influence set point for body
weight. If a person\u2019s weight rises too far above his set point, his appetite decreases,or he
uses up more enegy.His weight then returns to its set point.If on the other hand,his weight
falls too far bellow his set point, his appetite increases, or he use less energy.
The set point is maintained not only by ffod intake and energy expenditure,but also by the
body\u2019s basal metabolic rate,other genetically influenced variable. Basal metabolic rate is
the rate at which a person at complete rest use energy. some researchers disagree about set
points and believe that people can reset their normal weight if they add,or lose pounds
slowly. They also point out that people usually gain weight,when they have easy access to
2. The ventromedial nucleus of the hipothalamus is involved in reconizing satiety or fullness.In rats,damage to the ventromedial nucleus results in excessive eating and weight gain.
3. The paraventricular nucleus of the hipothalamus is also involved in hunger
regulation.When the paraventricular nucleus of a rat is demaged, the rat will eat a
very quantity of food at each meal.
The digestive system influences in several ways. After a meal, the stomach and intestines
send nerve impulses to the brain to help people recognize that , they are full. The body
converts food in glucose, a simple sugar that acts as an energy source for cells. The level of
glucose in the blood affects hunger. Low blood glucose increase hunger; high blood glucose
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