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What is Motivation

What is Motivation

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Final work about The Motivation
Final work about The Motivation

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Published by: api-3762165 on Oct 16, 2008
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What is Motivation
- 1-
Francisco R. Paya
What is Motivation

A motive, is an impulse that cause a person to act. Motivation is an internal proces that
make a person move a goal. Motivation. is like intelligence, can not be directly observed.
Motivation can only be inferred by noting a person\u2019s behavior.
Reasearchers have proposed theories that try to explain the human motivation. These
theories include drive reduction theoria and Maslow\u2019s hierarchy of needs theory.

Drive reduction theoria of motivation sugest that people act in order to reduce needs
and maintain a constant physiological state.
For example: People eat in order to reduce their need for food.
The idea of homeostasis is central to drive reduction theories.Hom oestasis is the mainte-
nance of a state of physiological equilibrium.
In Drive reduction theories fail to explain several aspects of motivation.
1. People sometimes are not motivated by internal needs
Example: Some people fast for long period for political causes, despite feeling
extreme hunger.
2. Sometimes, people continue being motivated even when they have a satisfied
internal needs.
Example: People are often eat when they can not feel hungry.
3. People are often motivated by external incentives as well internal needs.
Example: If a person in handry, He or She may choose to eat a salad with a cheese
burger,because they wants to be slimmer.
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation
A motivation may be intrinsic, extrinsic, or both.

1. The Intrinsic motivation: Is the motivation to act for the sake of the activity alone. For example: people have intrinsic motivation to write poetry,if they do it simply because they enjoy it.

2. The Extrinsic motivation: on the other hand, is the motivation to act for external rewars.For example: people have extrinsic motivation to write if they do so in the hope of getting published,being famous,or making money.

What is Motivation
- 2-
Francisco R. Paya

3. The Both or Incentives motivation : An incentive is an environmental stimulus that pulls people to act in a particular way. Getting an A on an exam to be an incentive that pulls a student toward studying.

Maslow\u2019s Hierarchy of need
In the 1970s, \u201cThe psychologist abraham Maslow suggested that people are motivated by a
hierarchy of needs:\u201d

1. First level or basic : physiological needs for food, water, safety, and security.
2. Second level: need for social interaction.
3. Third level : need for estreem,which include the need for respect from oneself and

4. Fourth level: needs for self-actualization, or realizing one full potential.

Maslow believed people pay attention to higher needs only when lower needs are satisfied.
The critics argue that Maslow\u2019s theory doesn\u2019t explain why higher needs often motivate
people even when lower needs are unsafisfied.
Example: Ray lives in a very dangerous neighborhood and constantly worries about safety.
He make little money at his job in civil-right law, but he enjoy it because he believes that
his true calling is to fight injustice.
Critics also point out that people are sometimes simultaneously motivated by needs at
different levels. Example: Angie might be motivated to join a theater club both,because she
wants to be respected for her acting skill.

Types of Need

People have innate needs and learned needs, both of which are influenced by society and
culture. People have a limited number of innate needs, which include needs for food,water,
oxygen, and elimination of vastes. There are however a relatively large number of learned
needs,including needs for achievement,autonomy, and power. These needs are determined
by values,or people perceptions of what is important in life.

Hunger: Is a complicated motivation;people don\u2019t eat only because they need food.many
factors, both biological and environmental,influence hunger.These facors interat with
another in many ways.

What is Motivation
- 3-
Francisco R. Paya
Biological Factor

Researchers believe certain genetic differences among individuals play a role in hunger.
The brain,the digestive, and hormones are all involved influencing hunger at the biological
level.The researchers theorize that people have a genetically influence set point for body
weight. If a person\u2019s weight rises too far above his set point, his appetite decreases,or he
uses up more enegy.His weight then returns to its set point.If on the other hand,his weight
falls too far bellow his set point, his appetite increases, or he use less energy.
The set point is maintained not only by ffod intake and energy expenditure,but also by the
body\u2019s basal metabolic rate,other genetically influenced variable. Basal metabolic rate is
the rate at which a person at complete rest use energy. some researchers disagree about set
points and believe that people can reset their normal weight if they add,or lose pounds
slowly. They also point out that people usually gain weight,when they have easy access to
rich foods.

The Brain
1. The lateral hipothalamus is envolved in recongnizing hunger,In rats,damage to the
lateral hypothalamun results in loss of interest eating.

2. The ventromedial nucleus of the hipothalamus is involved in reconizing satiety or fullness.In rats,damage to the ventromedial nucleus results in excessive eating and weight gain.

3. The paraventricular nucleus of the hipothalamus is also involved in hunger
regulation.When the paraventricular nucleus of a rat is demaged, the rat will eat a
very quantity of food at each meal.

The Digestive System

The digestive system influences in several ways. After a meal, the stomach and intestines
send nerve impulses to the brain to help people recognize that , they are full. The body
converts food in glucose, a simple sugar that acts as an energy source for cells. The level of
glucose in the blood affects hunger. Low blood glucose increase hunger; high blood glucose
decreases hunger.

The hormone insulin also play an important role in regulatin hunger.Insulin allows cells to
access glucose in the bllod.When the pancreas secretes insulin.

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