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Toan Cao Cap_A2

Toan Cao Cap_A2

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Published by api-3760049

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Published by: api-3760049 on Oct 16, 2008
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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GI\u00c1O TR\u00ccNH TO\u00c1N CAO C\u1ea4P A2
S\u00fdu t\u1ea7m by hoangly85
GI\u00c1O TR\u00ccNH TO\u00c1N CAO C\u1ea4P A2
S\u00fdu t\u1ea7m by hoangly85
CH\u00dd\u00d5NG I: PH\u00c9P T\u00cdNH VI PH\u00c2N H\u00c0M NHI\u1ec0U BI\u1ebeN
I. T\u1eacPH\u1ee2PRN V\u00c0 H\u00c0M NHI\u1ec0U BI\u1ebeN
1. Rn v\u00e0 c\u00e1c t\u1eadp con
V\u1edbi n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1nguy\u00ean d\u00fd\u00f5ng\u1edd k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u\u1eden\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c d\u00f9ng\u00f0\u1ec3ch\u1ec9t\u1eadph\u1ee3pt\u1ea5tc\u1ea3c\u00e1c b\u1ed9n s\u1ed1
th\u1ef1c \u1eadx1, x2,\u2026\u1eddxn) v\u00e0 ta th\u00fd\u1eddng g\u1ecdi \u1eden l\u00e0 kh\u00f4ng gian \u1eadth\u1ef1c\u1ea5 n chi\u1ec1u\u1ec1 \u1ea9hi b\u1ed9 s\u1ed1 th\u1ef1c
(x1, x2,\u2026\u1eddxn)\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c \u00f0\u1eb7t t\u00ean l\u00e0 \u1ef3 th\u00ec ta vi\u1ebft l\u00e0\u1ea7

P(x1, x2,\u2026\u1edd xn)
V\u00e0 g\u1ecdi n\u00f3 l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t\u00f0i\u1ec3m trong kh\u00f4ng gian \u1eden.
Cho 2\u00f0i\u1ec3m \u1ef3\u1eadx1, x2,\u2026\u1edd xn) v\u00e0 \u1eb5\u1eady1, y2,\u2026\u1edd yn) trong Rn, kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch gi\u1eefa hai\u00f0i\u1ec3m

P v\u00e0 \u1eb5\u1edd k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u l\u00e0 d\u1ead\u1ef3\u1edd \u1eb5\u1ea5\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c\u00f0\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a b\u1edfi:
d(P, Q) =
Kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch n\u00e0y th\u1ecfa b\u1ea5t\u00f0\u1eb3ng th\u1ee9c tam gi\u00e1c sau\u00f0\u00e2y\u1ea7
d(P, Q)\u2264d\u1ead\u1ef3\u1edd R) + d(R, Q)
v\u1edbi \u0129\u00f0i\u1ec3m \u1ef3\u1edd \u1eb5\u1edd \u1ede t\u00f9y \u00fd\u1ec1
\u00d0i\u1ec3m \u1ef3\u1eadx1, x2,\u2026\u1eddxn) c\u00f2n\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c vi\u1ebft g\u1ecdn d\u00fd\u1edbid\u1ea1ng x\u1ee5\u1eadx1, x2,\u2026\u1eddxn) v\u1edbi x\u1ee5\u1eadx1, x2,\u2026\u1edd
xn) v\u00e0 y\u1ee5\u1eady1, y2,\u2026\u1edd yn), kho\u1ea3ng c\u00e1ch gi\u1eefa x v\u00e0 y c\u00f2n\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c vi\u1ebft b\u1edfi\u1ea7
| x\u2013 y |=
v\u00e0 r l\u00e0 s\u1ed1 th\u1ef1c d\u00fd\u00f5ng\u1edd t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p B(P, r) = {
| d(P, Q) < r}\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c
g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 h\u00ecnh c\u1ea7um\u1edft\u00e2m \u1ef3 b\u00e1n k\u00ednh r\u1edd hay l\u00e0 l\u00e2n c\u1eadn b\u00e1n k\u00ednh r c\u1ee7a \u1ef3\u1ec1
T\u1eadph\u1ee3p \u1eeb trong \u1eden\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 b\u1ecbch\u1eb7nn\u1ebfu c\u00f3 r \u1ec5 \u1ebf sao cho
, v\u1edbi \u1eab l\u00e0
\u00f0i\u1ec3m \u1eab\u1ead\u1ebf\u1edd \u1ebf\u1edd\u2026\u1edd \u1ebf\u1ea5\u1ec1
2. H\u00e0m nhi\u1ebfu bi\u1ebfn
Cho n l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t s\u1ed1 nguy\u00ean v\u1edbi n\u2265 \u1ecb\u1ec1 \u221e\u1ed9t ph\u00e9p t\u00fd\u00f5ng\u1ee9ng f\u1ea7 \u1eden\ue000 R\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u00e0m
n bi\u1ebfn\u1ec1 T\u1eadph\u1ee3p c\u00e1c\u00f0i\u1ec3m
m\u00e0 f\u1ead\u1ef3\u1ea5 x\u00e1c\u00f0\u1ecbnh\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c g\u1ecdi l\u00e0 mi\u1ec1n x\u00e1c\u00f0\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a f\u1ec1 Ta
k\u00fd hi\u1ec7u mi\u1ec1n x\u00e1c\u00f0\u1ecbnh c\u1ee7a f l\u00e0 \u1eaf\u1eadf\u1ea5\u1ec1
V\u00ed d\u1ee5 \u1ea7
GI\u00c1O TR\u00ccNH TO\u00c1N CAO C\u1ea4P A2
S\u00fdu t\u1ea7m by hoangly85
1) H\u00e0m f \u1ea7 \u1ede2\ue000 R
(x, y)\ue000 f(x, y)=
L\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u00e0m \u1ecb bi\u1ebfn c\u00f3 mi\u1ec1n x\u00e1c\u00f0\u1ecbnh l\u00e0 t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p t\u1ea5t c\u1ea3 c\u00e1c\u00f0i\u1ec3m \u1ef3\u1eadx\u1edd y\u1ea5 sao cho
4-x2-y2>0. V\u1eady \u1eaf\u1eadf\u1ea5\u1ee5\u1eed\u1ead\u1ebf\u1edd \u1ecb\u1ea5\u1edd h\u00ecnh c\u1ea7um\u1edft\u00e2m \u1eab b\u00e1n k\u00ednh \u1ecb trong \u1ede2.
2) g : R3\ue000 R v\u1edbi g\u1eadx\u1edd y\u1edd z\u1ea5\u1ee5x2+(y+z)/2 l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t h\u00e0m 3 bi\u1ebfn c\u00f3 mi\u1ec1n x\u00e1c\u00f0\u1ecbnh l\u00e0
Ta ch\u1ec9c\u00f3 th\u1ec3bi\u1ec3u di\u1ec5n h\u00ecnh h\u1ecdc\u1edd b\u1eb1ng v\u1ebd\u00f0\u1ed3th\u1ecb\u1edd cho h\u00e0m \u1ecb bi\u1ebfn z \u1ee5 f\u1eadx\u1edd y\u1ea5\u1ec1
\u00d0\u1ed3th\u1ecbc\u1ee7a h\u00e0m \u1ecb bi\u1ebfn n\u00e0y l\u00e0 t\u1eadp h\u1ee3p c\u00e1c\u00f0i\u1ec3m trong kh\u00f4ng gian \u1ede3sau\u00f0\u00e2y\u1ea7
G(f)={(x, y, f(x, y)) |
\u00d0\u00e2y l\u00e0 m\u1ed9t m\u1eb7t cong trong kh\u00f4ng gian \u0129 chi\u1ec1u v\u1edbi h\u1ec7 t\u1ecda\u00f0\u1ed9 \u1eafescartes \u1eabxyz\u1ec1
V\u00ed d\u1ee5\u1ea7\u00f0\u1ed3 th\u1ecb c\u1ee7a h\u00e0m z \u1ee5
l\u00e0 n\u1eeda tr\u00ean c\u1ee7a m\u1eb7t c\u1ea7u t\u00e2m \u1eab b\u00e1n k\u00ednh \u1eef
trong kh\u00f4ng gian \u0129 chi\u1ec1u \u1eabxyz\u1ec1
II. GI\u1edaIH\u1ea0N V\u00c0 T\u00cdNH LI\u00caN T\u1ee4C
1.\u00d0\u1ecbnh ngh\u0129a gi\u1edbih\u1ea1n
Cho h\u00e0m n bi\u1ebfn z \u1ee5 f \u1eadx1, x2,\u2026\u1edd xn) x\u00e1c\u00f0\u1ecbnh tr\u00ean m\u1ed9t l\u00e2n c\u1eadn b\u00e1n k\u00ednh r c\u1ee7am\u1ed9t

v\u00e0 c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 kh\u00f4ng x\u00e1c\u00f0\u1ecbnh t\u1ea1i \u1ef3\u1ec1 Ta n\u00f3i z \u1ee5 f \u1eadx1, x2,\u2026\u1edd xn) ti\u1ebfnv\u1ec1
(hay c\u00f3 gi\u1edbi h\u1ea1n l\u00e0 \u1ee1\u1ea5\u1ec1 \u1ea9hi \u221e \u1eadx1, x2,\u2026\u1edd xn) d\u1ea7n\u00f0\u1ebfn \u1ef3 n\u1ebfu v\u1edbi m\u1ecdi\u00e5 \u1ec5 \u1ebf cho tr\u00fd\u1edbc\u1edd
t\u1ed3n t\u1ea1i\u00e4 \u1ec5 \u1ebf sao cho\u1ea7

0 < d (P, M) <\u00e4\u1ee5\u1ec5 | f\u1ead\u221e\u1ea5\u2013 L | <\u00e5\u1ec1
Khi\u00f0\u00f3 ta vi\u1ebft\u1ea7
Trong tr\u00fd\u1eddng h\u1ee3p h\u00e0m \u1ecb bi\u1ebfn z \u1ee5 f \u1eadx\u1edd y\u1ea5 th\u00ec gi\u1edbi h\u1ea1n c\u00f3 th\u1ec3\u00f0\u00fd\u1ee3c vi\u1ebft l\u00e0\u1ea7
Hay c\u00f3 th\u1ec3 vi\u1ebft\u1ea7

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