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"Renaissance," French for "rebirth," perfectly describes the intellectual and economic
changes that occurred in Europe from the fourteenth through the sixteenth centuries.

During the era known by this name, Europe emerged from the economic stagnation of the
Middle Ages and experienced a time of financial growth. Also, and perhaps most
importantly, the Renaissance was an age in which artistic, social, scientific, and political
thought turned in new directions.

The Renaissance was a rebirth that occurred throughout most of Europe. However, the
changes that we associate with the Renaissance first occurred in the Italian city of
Florence and continued to be more pervasive there than anywhere else. The city's
economy and its writers, painters, architects, and philosophers all made Florence a model
of Renaissance culture.

Fifteenth-century Florence was an exciting place to be. In 1425 the city had a population
of 60,000 and was a self-governed, independent city-state. Twelve artist guilds that
regulated the trades were the basis of Florence's commercial success. Members of the
guilds, who were wealthy and held positions in government, were some of Florence's
most influential people in society and politics. Because of its strong economy and a
political philosophy that was dedicated to the welfare of the city, Florence thrived.

The most powerful guilds were those that represented textile workers. Much of Florence's
wealth was dependent on the manufacture or trade of cloth, primarily wool. Wool of
superior quality was often purchased unfinished and untreated from England and Iberia.
Florentine textile workers then cleaned, carded, spun, dyed, and wove the wool into
cloth of excellent quality. They sold the finished material in Italy, northern European
cities, and even in eastern countries. Other textile experts purchased inferior cloth from
northern cities and refinished it to create a superior product.

Because Florence was not a port city like Venice, sea trade was not a primary source of
its income. Banking, however, was. Many families of Florence, beginning in the
thirteenth century, were successful bankers. The Florentine gold coin known as the florin
was of such reliable purity that it was the standard coinage throughout Europe. Florentine
bankers were known throughout Europe as well, for they established banking houses in
other important cities such as London, Geneva, and Bruges (Belgium).

The Palazzo Vecchio, constructed in 1299, was the home of the Florentine guilds. Then,
as well as today, it functioned as the seat of municipal government and the heart of
Florentine culture. It was here that the city's 5,000 guild members, who had the power of
the vote, gathered to discuss and determine city issues. In addition to textile workers and
bankers, the guild members included masons and builders, sculptors, lawyers, and

TheRenaissance (French for "rebirth"; Italian:Rinasc imento), was a cultural movement
that spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century, beginning in Italy in the late
Middle Ages and later spreading to the rest of Europe. It encompassed the revival of
learning based on classical sources, the rise of courtly and papal patronage, the
development of perspective in painting, and advancements in science.[1] The Renaissance
had wide-ranging consequences in all intellectual pursuits, but is perhaps best known for
its artistic aspect and the contributions of such polymaths as Leonardo da Vinci and
Michelangelo, who have inspired the term "Renaissance men".[2][3]

There is a general \u2014 though by no means unchallenged \u2014 consensus that the
Renaissance began in Florence in the fourteenth century.[4] Various theories have been
proposed to explain its origin and characteristics, focusing on an assortment of factors,
including the social and civic peculiarities of Florence at this time including its political
structure and the patronage of its dominant family, the Medici.

The Renaissance has a long and complex historiography, and there has always been
debate among historians as to the usefulness of the Renaissance as a term and as a
historical age.[1] Some have called into question whether the Renaissance really was a
cultural "advance" from the Middle Ages, instead seeing it as a period of pessimism and
nostalgia for the classical age.[5] While nineteenth-century historians were keen to
emphasise that the Renaissance represented a clear "break" from Medieval thought and
practice, some modern historians have instead focused on the continuity between the two
eras.[6] Indeed, it is now usually considered incorrect to classify any historical period as
"better" or "worse", leading some to call for an end to the use of the term, which they see
as a product of presentism.[7] The wordRena issance has also been used to describe other
historical and cultural movements, such as the Carolingian Renaissance and the
Byzantine Renaissance.

1 Overview
2 The Renaissance's origins
2.1 Assimilation of Greek and Arabic knowledge
2.2 Social and political structures in Italy
2.3 The Black Death
2.4 Cultural conditions in Florence
3 The Renaissance's characteristics
3.1 Humanism
3.2 Art
3.3 Science
3.4 Religion
3.5 Renaissance self-awareness
4 The Renaissance spreads
4.1 The Northern Renaissance
5 The Renaissance's historiography
5.1 Conception
5.2 For better or for worse?
6 Other Renaissances
7 References and sources
7.1 References and notes
7.2 Sources
8 See also
8.1 Internal Links
8.2 External links

Leonardo da Vinci's Vitruvian Man shows clearly the effect writers of antiquity had on
Renaissance thinkers. Based on the specifications in Vitruvius's De architectura, da Vinci
tried to draw the perfectly proportioned man.

The Renaissance was a cultural movement that profoundly affected European intellectual
life in the early modern period. Beginning in Italy, and spreading to the rest of Europe by
the 16th century, its influence was felt in literature, philosophy, art, politics, science,
religion, and other aspects of intellectual enquiry. Renaissance scholars employed the
humanist method in study, and searched for realism and human emotion in art.[1]

Renaissance thinkers sought out learning from ancient texts, typically written in Latin or
ancient Greek. Scholars scoured Europe's monastic libraries, searching for works of
antiquity which had fallen into obscurity. In such texts they found a desire to improve and
perfect their worldly knowledge; an entirely different sentiment to the transcendental
spirituality stressed by medieval Christianity.[1][not in citation given] They did not reject
Christianity; quite the contrary, many of the Renaissance's greatest works were devoted to

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