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Lastik Sektör Araştırma Raporu 2000

Lastik Sektör Araştırma Raporu 2000

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Published by api-3762401

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Published by: api-3762401 on Oct 16, 2008
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03/18/2014

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1
L
LLA
AAS
SST
TT\u0130
\u0130\u0130K
KKS
SSE
EEK
KKT
TT\u00d6
\u00d6\u00d6R
RRA
AAR
RRA
AA\u015e
\u015e\u015eT
TTI
IIR
RRM
MMA
AAS
SSI
II1
11
I.B\u00d6L\u00dcM:GENEL
1.1;Lastik nedir?
\u0130nsan, y\u00fck vb \u015feyleri ta\u015f\u0131mak i\u00e7in yolla ara\u00e7 aras\u0131nda temas\u0131sa\u011flamak \u00fczere
yerle\u015ftirilmi\u015f i\u00e7inde belirli bas\u0131n\u00e7ta hava bulunan esnek bir muhafazad\u0131r. \u00dc\u00e7 \u00f6nemli temel
unsuru s\u0131ras\u0131yla emniyet sa\u011flamas\u0131, esnek olmas\u0131 ve arac\u0131n motor g\u00fcc\u00fcn\u00fc yola iletebilmesidir.
\u0130nsanl\u0131k tarihinin en \u00f6nemli bulu\u015flar\u0131ndan biri olarak kabul edilen tekerlekle birlikte

g\u00fcn\u00fcm\u00fczde kara ve hatta hava ula\u015f\u0131m\u0131ndan, tar\u0131msal ara\u00e7 gere\u00e7lere, i\u015f makinelerinden, bisikletlere, askeri ekipmanlara k\u0131saca hareket eden ara\u00e7lar\u0131n \u00e7ok b\u00fcy\u00fck bir b\u00f6l\u00fcm\u00fcnde g\u00f6r\u00fcn\u00fc\u015f itibariyle basit ancak teknolojisine inildi\u011finde bir okadar karma\u015f\u0131k hayati bir g\u00f6rev arzeder.

Lastik, \u00fczerindeki belirli bir y\u00fck\u00fc, bu y\u00fck i\u00e7in gerekli y\u00fcksek bas\u0131n\u00e7l\u0131 havay\u0131 muhafaza edecek g\u00fc\u00e7l\u00fc bir yap\u0131yla ta\u015f\u0131r. Arac\u0131n slalom benzeri manevralarda ve virajdaki hareketinde yanal kayma, savrulmalar\u0131 \u00f6nleyecek y\u00f6nde ara\u00e7 emniyetini sa\u011flar, Y\u00fcksek h\u0131zda arac\u0131n d\u00fcz hatta seyretmesini ve arac\u0131n gezmesini azalt\u0131r. Arac\u0131n fren sisteminin yaratt\u0131\u011f\u0131 frenleme kuvvetini yol y\u00fczeyine transfer ederek, arac\u0131 durdurur. Yol sars\u0131nt\u0131lar\u0131n\u0131 azalt\u0131r ve s\u00fcr\u00fc\u015f konforunu sa\u011flar. Ara\u00e7 moturunun yaratt\u0131\u011f\u0131 ve aktarma organlar\u0131ndan gelen kuvveti yol y\u00fczeyine transfer ederek, arac\u0131n hareketini-\u00e7eki\u015fini sa\u011flar.

Armonize sistem s\u00f6zle\u015fmesine g\u00f6re kau\u00e7uktan yeni d\u0131\u015f lastikler 40.11, (kau\u00e7uktan s\u0131rt ge\u00e7irilmi\u015f ve kullan\u0131lm\u0131\u015f d\u0131\u015f lastikler 40.12, kau\u00e7uktan i\u00e7 lastikler 40.13) g\u00fcmr\u00fck tarife numaras\u0131 alt\u0131nda s\u0131n\u0131fland\u0131r\u0131lmaktad\u0131r.

1.2; Lasti\u011fin\u0130\u00e7 Yap\u0131s\u0131 Nas\u0131ld\u0131r?
Olduk\u00e7a kompleks bir \u00fcr\u00fcn olan lastik ana hatlar\u0131 itibariyle,

Esnek (Do\u011fal ve Yapay kau\u00e7uklar),
Kuvvetlendirici (\u0130\u015f Karas\u0131),
Ba\u011flay\u0131c\u0131 (Re\u00e7ine),
Yumu\u015fat\u0131c\u0131,
Pi\u015firici (K\u00fck\u00fcrt),
H\u0131zland\u0131r\u0131c\u0131 ve yava\u015flat\u0131c\u0131, Antioksidant ve Antiozonant maddelerle
Kord bezleri (Tekstil veya \u00c7elik) ve
\u00c7elik Teller (Damak).

olmak \u00fczere 100 \u00e7e\u015fit hammaddenin bile\u015fiminden olu\u015fmaktad\u0131r.
Lastikler s\u0131rt, omuz, yanak, damak ve g\u00f6vde olmak \u00fczere be\u015f b\u00f6l\u00fcm olup g\u00f6revleri:
1 \u00c7al\u0131\u015fma d\u0131\u015f lastik \u00fczerine olup, k\u0131saca lastik ad\u0131 ile an\u0131lacakt\u0131r.
2

S\u0131rt: \u00dcst\u00fc desenli,a\u015f\u0131nmaya dayan\u0131kl\u0131,lasti\u011fi d\u0131\u015f etkenlere kar\u015f\u0131 koruyan,yere basan k\u0131sm\u0131d\u0131r. Omuz: Yanakla s\u0131rt aras\u0131ndaki desenli k\u0131s\u0131md\u0131r. Lasti\u011fin so\u011fumas\u0131na ve viraj alabilmesine yard\u0131m eder.

Yanak: Omuzla damak aras\u0131ndaki esnek k\u0131s\u0131md\u0131r. Lastikle ilgili t\u00fcm bilgilerin yaz\u0131l\u0131 oldu\u011fu
yerdir.
Damak: Lasti\u011fi janta oturtan, \u00e7elik tellerden olu\u015fan k\u0131sm\u0131d\u0131r. Lasti\u011fi jantla b\u00fct\u00fcnle\u015ftirerek
"tekerle\u011fi" olu\u015fturur.
G\u00f6vde: \u00c7e\u015fitli ipliklerden (naylon,rayon,\u00e7elik)\u00f6r\u00fclm\u00fc\u015f bezler olup lasti\u011fin iskeletidir. Y\u00fck\u00fc
kald\u0131ran,araca esneklik ve yollara uyum sa\u011flayan b\u00f6l\u00fcmd\u00fcr.
1.3; Lastiklerle\u0130lgili S\u0131n\u0131fland\u0131rma ve Tan\u0131mlar\u0131n Anlam\u0131 Nedir?
Lastikler;
G\u00f6vde yap\u0131lar\u0131na g\u00f6re 3\u2019e ayr\u0131l\u0131rlar;

-\u00c7apraz Katl\u0131 (Konvansiyonel)-G\u00f6vdeyi olu\u015fturan kord bezleri damaktan dama\u011fa \u00e7apraz olarak yerle\u015ftirilmi\u015ftir. Zor esneyen, sert, y\u00fcke dayan\u0131kl\u0131 bir lastik t\u00fcr\u00fcd\u00fcr. Lasti\u011fin ilk \u00fcretildi\u011fi 1890\u2019l\u0131 y\u0131llardan bu yana g\u00fcn\u00fcm\u00fczde azalmakla birlikte \u00f6zellikle a\u011f\u0131r vas\u0131talarda ba\u015far\u0131 ile kullan\u0131lmaktad\u0131r.

-\u00c7apraz katl\u0131 Ku\u015fakl\u0131- Konvansiyonel lastiklerdeki gibi \u00e7apraz katl\u0131 kord bezlerinin \u00fczerinde \u00e7epe\u00e7evre bir de ku\u015fak bulunur.\u0130lk kez 1967\u2019de ortaya \u00e7\u0131km\u0131\u015f ancak daha sonra kullan\u0131m\u0131 terkedilmi\u015ftir.

-Radyal- Kord bezleri di\u011fer iki tipin aksine bir damaktan di\u011ferine d\u00fcz ayn\u0131 y\u00f6nde yerle\u015ftirilmi\u015f ve \u00fczerlerine s\u0131rt alt\u0131n\u0131 \u00e7epe\u00e7evre kaplayan tekstil veya \u00e7elik ku\u015faklar ge\u00e7irilmi\u015ftir. G\u00fcn\u00fcm\u00fczde \u00f6zellikle \u00e7elik ku\u015fakl\u0131 radyaller t\u00fcm ara\u00e7 tiplerinin en \u00f6nemli lasti\u011fi haline gelmi\u015ftir.

Ayr\u0131ca kullan\u0131m amac\u0131na ve desenlerine ba\u011fl\u0131 olarak;

- D\u00fcz tip veya cadde tipi
- D\u00fcz di\u015fli tip
- Di\u015fli tip veya kar/\u00e7amur gibi
- \u00d6zel tip (trakt\u00f6r, askeri, grayder vs.)
- Blok tip

olarak s\u0131n\u0131fland\u0131r\u0131l\u0131r.
Ebat

Lasti\u011fin yana\u011f\u0131nda bulunan. 7.50-14; 9.00-20; 12.00-20 veya 155 R13; 185 R14; 11 R22.5 gibi bir tak\u0131m rakam ve harfler olarak g\u00f6z\u00fcm\u00fcze \u00e7arpan bu tan\u0131mlar lasti\u011fin h\u00fcviyeti olup R harfi lasti\u011fin radyal yap\u0131da oldu\u011funu g\u00f6sterir. Rakamlar ise seri demek olup, lastik y\u00fcksekliklerinin geni\u015fliklerine oran\u0131d\u0131r. Daha da a\u00e7mak gerekirse rakamlardan birincileri lasti\u011fin yanaklar aras\u0131 geni\u015fli\u011fini (in\u00e7=2.54 cm veya mm olarak), ikincisi ise bu lastiklerin tak\u0131ld\u0131\u011f\u0131 jantlar\u0131n \u00e7ap\u0131n\u0131 (in\u00e7=2.54 cm olarak), ba\u015fka bir de\u011fi\u015fle lasti\u011fin ortas\u0131ndaki bo\u015flu\u011fun \u00e7ap\u0131n\u0131, g\u00f6sterir.

3
Lastiklerdeki J,K,L,M,N,S,T,H,V,Z,W ve Y Harfleri
Bu harfler S\u00fcrat Sembolleri olup, lasti\u011fin g\u00fcvenle yapabilece\u011fi en y\u00fcksek h\u0131zlar\u0131 ifade
eder.
Binek lastikleri i\u00e7in:

S :180 KM/SAAT
T :190 KM/SAAT
H :210 KM/SAAT
V :240 KM/SAAT
Z :240 KM/SAAT
W :270 KM/SAAT
Y :300 KM/SAAT

Kamyon Lastikleri\u0130\u00e7in:

J :100KM/SAAT
K :110 KM/SAAT
L :120 KM/SAAT
M :130 KM/SAAT
N :140 KM/SAAT

1.4; Lastikler \u00dczerinde Ba\u015fka Harfler Var m\u0131d\u0131r?
Vard\u0131r. \u00d6nemli olanlar\u0131na de\u011finmek istersek;
\u0130ngilizce Passenger=yolcu anlam\u0131na gelen P harfi, bu tip lastikler binek otolar\u0131 i\u00e7indir.
C harfi, Commercial = Ticari kelimesinin ba\u015f harfi olup ticari i\u015f yapan kamyonet ve minib\u00fcs
lastikleridir.
M+S harfleri, \u00c7amur ve Kar kelimeleri olan Mud and Snow'un ba\u015f harflerinden olu\u015fmu\u015ftur
ve Kar Lastikleri demektir.
Ayr\u0131ca,her zaman kullan\u0131labilen ve \u00fczerlerinde All Season (Her Mevsim) veya All Weather
(Her Hava) yazan D\u00f6rt Mevsim lastikleri de vard\u0131r.
1,5; Lastikle\u0130lgili Standartlar Nelerdir?

Hayat\u0131n hemen her alan\u0131nda son derece de\u011fi\u015fik ara\u00e7 ve ekipmanlarda kullan\u0131lan lastiklerle ilgili olarak T\u00fcrkiye Avrupa Lastik ve Jant Teknoloji \u00d6rg\u00fct\u00fc (European Tyre & Rim Technology Organization- ETRTO) \u00fcyesi olmas\u0131 dolay\u0131s\u0131 ile ETRTO standartlar\u0131 kullan\u0131lmaktad\u0131r. Esasen lastik teknolojisinin sahibi olan Avrupa\u2019n\u0131n standard\u0131 olarak t\u00fcm d\u00fcnyada \u00f6ncelikli olarak ge\u00e7erli ETRTO d\u0131\u015f\u0131nda ABD standard\u0131 olan DOT (Department of Transportation- Ula\u015ft\u0131rma Bakanl\u0131\u011f\u0131) ve Japonya\u2019n\u0131n JAPNA standartlar\u0131 da kullan\u0131lmaktad\u0131r.

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