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Tavukçuluk Sektörü 2005

Tavukçuluk Sektörü 2005

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Published by: api-3762401 on Oct 16, 2008
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1
\u0130\u00c7\u0130NDEK\u0130LER
Sayfa No
1.
TAVUK ET\u0130 VE TAVUK\u00c7ULUK SEKT\u00d6R\u00dc
3
1.1.
Tan\u0131m\u0131 ve Kapsam\u0131
3
1.2.
Tavuk\u00e7uluk Sekt\u00f6r\u00fcn\u00fcn Tarihi
4
2.
SEKT\u00d6R\u00dcN D\u00dcNYADAK\u0130 YER\u0130
5
2.1.
D\u00fcnyada Tavuk Eti \u00dcretimi
5
2.2.
D\u00fcnyada Tavuk Eti T\u00fcketimi
6
2.3.
D\u00fcnyada Tavuk Eti \u0130thalat\u0131 ve \u0130hracat\u0131
7
3.
SEKT\u00d6R\u00dcN T\u00dcRK\u0130YE\u2019DEK\u0130 YER\u0130
9
3.1.
T\u00fcrkiye\u2019de Sekt\u00f6r\u00fcn Durumu ve \u00dcretim
9
3.2.
T\u00fcrkiye\u2019de Tavuk Eti T\u00fcketimi
10
3.3.
Ekonomik Katk\u0131 ve \u0130stihdam
11
3.4.
T\u00fcrkiye\u2019de Tavuk Eti \u0130thalat\u0131 ve \u0130hracat\u0131
11
4.
SEKT\u00d6RLE \u0130LG\u0130L\u0130 MEVZUAT
14
4.1.
Mevzuat
14
4.2.
Tesis Kurulmas\u0131 ve \u00c7al\u0131\u015fma \u0130zni Al\u0131nmas\u0131 \u0130\u015flemleri
14
4.3.
Ambalajlama, Etiketleme ve Di\u011fer \u00d6nemli Ko\u015fullar A\u00e7\u0131s\u0131ndan15
Mevzuat
4.4.
\u00dcr\u00fcn Standartlar\u0131
15
5.
SEKT\u00d6R SORUNLARI VE \u00c7\u00d6Z\u00dcM \u00d6NER\u0130LER\u0130
16
5.1.
D\u0131\u015fa Ba\u011f\u0131ml\u0131l\u0131k Sorunu
16
5.2.
Yemlik Hammadde Sorunlar\u0131
16
5.3.
Finansman Sorunu
17
5.4
KDV\u2019nin D\u00fc\u015f\u00fcr\u00fclmesi
17
5.5
T\u00fcketim Azl\u0131\u011f\u0131
17
5.6
Tavukta Hormon ve Antibiyotik \u0130ddialar\u0131
17
5.7.
Dam\u0131zl\u0131k \u00dcretimindeki Sorunlar
18
5.8
\u0130hracat ve \u0130thalattaki Sorunlar
18
5.9.
Kay\u0131ts\u0131z (Merdiven alt\u0131) \u00dcretim Sorunu
18
6.
SEKT\u00d6RDE FAAL\u0130YET G\u00d6STEREN BA\u015eICA \u00dcRET\u0130C\u0130 VE
19
/ VEYA \u0130HRACAT\u00c7I F\u0130RMALAR
6.1
Sekt\u00f6rde faaliyet g\u00f6steren ba\u015fl\u0131ca firmalar
19
6.2.
Sekt\u00f6rle ilgili dernekler ve Birlikler
21
7.
KAYNAKLAR
22
2
TABLOLAR
Tablo 1 \u2013 Uluslar aras\u0131 S\u0131n\u0131fland\u0131rmalara G\u00f6re K\u00fcmes Hayvanlar\u0131 Eti
4
Tablo 2 \u2013 Y\u0131llara G\u00f6re D\u00fcnya Tavuk \u00dcretimi
5
Tablo 3 \u2013 D\u00fcnyan\u0131n Ba\u015fl\u0131ca \u00dcretim \u00dclkeleri ve \u00dcretim Miktarlar\u0131
5
Tablo 4 \u2013 Y\u0131ll\u0131k Ki\u015fi Ba\u015f\u0131 T\u00fcm Tavuk Eti T\u00fcketimi
6
Tablo 5 \u2013 Y\u0131ll\u0131k Ki\u015fi Ba\u015f\u0131 Et Tavu\u011fu (Broiler) T\u00fcketimi
7
Tablo 6 \u2013 D\u00fcnya \u0130hracat\u0131nda \u00d6nde Gelen \u00dclkeler ve \u0130hracat De\u011ferleri
8
Tablo 7 \u2013 D\u00fcnya \u0130thalat\u0131nda \u00d6nde Gelen \u00dclkeler ve \u0130thalat De\u011ferleri
8
Tablo 8 - T\u00fcrkiye\u2019nin Beyaz Et ( Broiler) ve Yumurta Tavuklar\u0131 Di\u011fer
9
Kanatl\u0131 Eti \u00dcretimi
Tablo 9 - Ki\u015fi Ba\u015f\u0131na Y\u0131ll\u0131k Tavuk Eti T\u00fcketimi
10
Tablo 10 - K\u00fcmes Hayvanlar\u0131 Etleri ile Sakatatlar\u0131 \u0130thalat\u0131
12
Tablo 11 - K\u00fcmes Hayvanlar\u0131 Etleri ile Sakatatlar\u0131 \u0130hracat\u0131
12
Tablo 12 - T\u00fcrkiye\u2019nin \u00dclkeler \u0130tibariyle K\u00fcmes Hayvanlar\u0131 Etleri ile
13
Sakatatlar\u0131 \u0130hracat\u0131
Tablo 13 \u2013 Y\u00fcr\u00fcrl\u00fckte Olan Standartlar
16
GRAF\u0130KLER
Grafik 1 \u2013 Toplam Kanatl\u0131 Eti \u00dcretimi
10
Grafik 2 \u2013 Ki\u015fi Ba\u015f\u0131na Y\u0131ll\u0131k Tavuk Eti T\u00fcketimi
11
3
1. TAVUK ET\u0130 VE TAVUK\u00c7ULUK SEKT\u00d6R\u00dc
1.1. Tan\u0131m\u0131 ve Kapsam\u0131

Tavuk; uluslararas\u0131 terminolojide \u201cKanatl\u0131 Eti\u201d kavram\u0131 i\u00e7inde ge\u00e7mekte olup, bu kavram\u0131n i\u00e7inde pili\u00e7, hindi, b\u0131ld\u0131rc\u0131n, \u00f6rdek, kaz gibi hayvanlar\u0131n etleri de yer almaktad\u0131r. Tavuk eti, hayvansal protein kayna\u011f\u0131 olarak g\u0131da sekt\u00f6r\u00fc ile i\u00e7 i\u00e7e oldu\u011fu gibi, tavuklar\u0131n yeti\u015ftirilmesinde ve insan sa\u011fl\u0131\u011f\u0131na etkilerinde sa\u011fl\u0131k sekt\u00f6r\u00fc ile, tesislerin in\u015fas\u0131nda in\u015faat sekt\u00f6r\u00fc ile de ili\u015fki i\u00e7inde olup her a\u00e7\u0131dan istihdam yarat\u0131c\u0131 bir sekt\u00f6rd\u00fcr.

Tavuk\u00e7uluk; Gelir elde etmek amac\u0131yla uygun bar\u0131naklarda, uygun tekniklerle bilin\u00e7li bir
yeti\u015ftiricilik olarak tan\u0131mlanabilir. \u201cYumurtac\u0131 Tavuk Yeti\u015ftiricili\u011fi\u201d ve \u201cEt\u00e7i Tavuk
Yeti\u015ftiricili\u011fi (Broiler)\u201d olarak iki \u015fekilde yap\u0131l\u0131r.

Broiler tavuk\u00e7ulu\u011funda kullan\u0131lan civcivler, \u0131slah yoluyla b\u00fcy\u00fcme h\u0131z\u0131 ve kapasitesi artt\u0131r\u0131lm\u0131\u015f hibrit civcivlerdir. Hayvan \u0131slah\u0131ndaki ilerleme ve yem sekt\u00f6r\u00fcndeki geli\u015fmelerle bu civcivler 40-45 g\u00fcn gibi k\u0131sa bir s\u00fcre i\u00e7erisinde 2-2,5 kilogram tavuk a\u011f\u0131rl\u0131\u011f\u0131na ula\u015fmaktad\u0131r.

\u00dclke genelinde tar\u0131m \u00fcretiminde az bir paya sahip olan hayvanc\u0131l\u0131\u011f\u0131n bir alt kolu olan tavuk\u00e7uluk sekt\u00f6r\u00fc; girdi\u011fi gerileme s\u00fcrecinden uzun s\u00fcredir kurtulamayan k\u0131rm\u0131z\u0131 et sekt\u00f6r\u00fcn\u00fcn yeterince \u00fcretim yapamamas\u0131ndan dolay\u0131 ortaya \u00e7\u0131kan hayvansal protein a\u00e7\u0131\u011f\u0131n\u0131, ithalata ihtiya\u00e7 duyulmadan zamanla artan \u00fcretimiyle kar\u015f\u0131lamakta olup, \u00fclke ekonomisinde \u00f6nemi giderek artmaktad\u0131r.

Tavuk, yedi\u011fi yemi \u00e7ok k\u0131sa s\u00fcrede ete ve yumurtaya d\u00f6n\u00fc\u015ft\u00fcrebilmekle beraber 1,8 kg yem ile 1 kg canl\u0131 a\u011f\u0131rl\u0131\u011fa ula\u015f\u0131rken, s\u0131\u011f\u0131r eti \u00fcretiminde 8 kg yem, domuz etinde ise 4 kg yeme ihtiya\u00e7 vard\u0131r. Tavuk\u00e7ulukta canl\u0131 a\u011f\u0131rl\u0131k art\u0131\u015f\u0131 y\u00f6n\u00fcndeki iyile\u015ftirme \u00e7al\u0131\u015fmalar\u0131n\u0131n yo\u011fun olarak devam etmesi ve \u00e7evre \u015fartlar\u0131n\u0131n daha uygun hale getirilmesi ko\u015fullar\u0131yla, t\u00fcrler aras\u0131nda yemden yararlanma bak\u0131m\u0131ndan g\u00f6r\u00fclmekte olan bu farkl\u0131l\u0131\u011f\u0131n tavuk\u00e7uluk lehine giderek artaca\u011f\u0131 ortadad\u0131r. Bilimin ve teknolojinin ilerlemesinin beraberinde vitaminlerin ve amino asitlerin \u00f6neminin anla\u015f\u0131lmas\u0131 ile yumurta; biyolojik de\u011ferlili\u011fi tam, insan sa\u011fl\u0131\u011f\u0131 i\u00e7in besin maddelerince en zengin ve koruyucu maddesi olarak tan\u0131mlanm\u0131\u015ft\u0131r.

Tavuk eti ise di\u011fer etlere g\u00f6re proteini y\u00fcksek, ya\u011f\u0131 az ve kalorisi d\u00fc\u015f\u00fckt\u00fcr. Ayr\u0131ca k\u0131rm\u0131z\u0131 ete oranla daha fazla ya\u011f asidi i\u00e7erir (oleik, linoleik, palmitikasit gibi). G\u00f6\u011f\u00fcs etinde kalori d\u00fczeyi 114 kcal, but etinde ise 125 kcal\u2019dir. Vitamin olarak ise B ve B6 vitaminlerine sahiptir. Ayr\u0131ca B vitamini i\u00e7inde bulunan \u201cniasin\u201din v\u00fccuttaki eksikli\u011fi DNA yap\u0131s\u0131n\u0131 bozulmas\u0131yla kansere yol a\u00e7ar. Tavuk etinde DNA\u2019n\u0131n yap\u0131s\u0131n\u0131 tamir eden ve kanseri \u00f6nleyici etkisi kan\u0131tlanm\u0131\u015f selenyum da bulunmaktad\u0131r.

Tavuk eti ve yumurtan\u0131n yan\u0131nda, kesimhane art\u0131klar\u0131 da rendering tesislerinde t\u00fcy unu, et unu gibi \u00fcr\u00fcnler olarak yem fabrikalar\u0131nda de\u011ferlendirilmektedir. Ayr\u0131ca Uzakdo\u011fu \u00fclkelerine ihra\u00e7 edilen tavuk ayaklar\u0131 da ekonomik bir potansiyel olu\u015fturmaktad\u0131r.

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