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03/18/2014

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1
LECTURE 3
C h a p te r 1 3 W ire d L A N s : E th e rn e t
(F o r o u z a n , D a t a C o m m u n ic a t io n s a n d N e t w o r k in g , 4t h
E d it io n )
2
1 3
1 3-
-1
IE E E S T A N D A R D S
1
IE E E S T A N D A R D S
I n 1 9 8 5 , th e C o m p u te r S o c ie ty o f th e I E E E
started a
I n 1 9 8 5 , th e C o m p u te r S o c ie ty o f th e I E E E
started a
p r o je c t, c a lle d P r o je c t 8 0 2 , to s e t s ta n d a r d s to e n a b le
p r o je c t, c a lle d P r o je c t 8 0 2 , to s e t s ta n d a r d s to e n a b le
in te r c o m m u n ic a tio n a m o n g e q u ip m e n t fr o m
a v a r ie ty
in te r c o m m u n ic a tio n a m o n g e q u ip m e n t fr o m
a v a r ie ty
of m anufacturers. Project 802 is a way of specifying
of m anufacturers. Project 802 is a way of specifying
fu n c tio n s o f th e p h y s ic a l la y e r a n d th e d a ta lin k la y e r
fu n c tio n s o f th e p h y s ic a l la y e r a n d th e d a ta lin k la y e r
o f m a jo r L A N p r o to c o ls .
o f m a jo r L A N p r o to c o ls .
\u2022
Designed to regulate m anufacturing and ensure
c o n n e c t iv it y
\u2022
Later adopted by ANSI (Am erican National Standard
I n s t it u t e ) a n d I S O a s w e ll
3
F ig u r e 1 3 .1
IE E E sta n d a rd fo r L A N s
\u2022
R e la t io n s h ip b e t w e e n 8 0 2 s t a n d a r d a n d O S I m o d e l
\u2022
L L C h a n d le s f lo w c o n t r o l, e r r o r c o n t r o l, a n d f r a m in g
\u2014N o t v e r y p o p u la r a n d a p p lic a t io n m a y n o t u s e L L C
4
F ig u r e 1 3 .2
H D LC fram e com pared with LLC and M AC fram es
\u2022
M u lt ip le M A C p r o t o c o ls a r e a v a ila b le
\u2014Ethernet LAN uses CSM A/CD as M AC protocol
5
1 3
1 3-
-2
STANDARD ETHERNET
2
STANDARD ETHERNET
T h e o r ig in a l E th e r n e t w a s c r e a te d in 1 9 7 6 a t X e r o x
T h e o r ig in a l E th e r n e t w a s c r e a te d in 1 9 7 6 a t X e r o x\u2019
\u2019s
s
P a lo A lto R e s e a r c h C e n te r (P A R C ). S in c e th e n , it h a s
P a lo A lto R e s e a r c h C e n te r (P A R C ). S in c e th e n , it h a s
gone through four generations. W e briefly discuss the
gone through four generations. W e briefly discuss the
S ta n d a r d (o r tr a d itio n a l) E th e r n e t
S ta n d a r d (o r tr a d itio n a l) E th e r n e tin th is section .
in th is section .
M A C S u b la y e r
Physical L ayer
T o p ic s d is c u s s e d in th is s e c tio n :
T o p ic s d is c u s s e d in th is s e c tio n :
6
F ig u r e 1 3 .3
E th e r n e t e v o lu tio n th r o u g h fo u r g e n e r a tio n s
7
F ig u r e 1 3 .4
8 0 2 .3 M A C fra m e
\u2022
M AC sublayer governs operation of the access m ethod
\u2022
Ethernet do not use acknow ledgem ent
\u2014R e ly in g o n s e n s in g s ig n a l le v e l f o r c o llis io n in s t e a d
\u2022
P r e a m b le : A le r t r e c e iv e r t o t h e c o m in g f r a m e a n d
s y n c h r o n iz e in p u t t im in g
\u2022
A d d r e s s h e r e is c a lle d p h y s ic a l a d d r e s s
8
F ig u r e 1 3 .5
M in im u m a n d m a x im u m le n g th s
\u2022
M in im u m le n g t h is n e e d e d t o e n s u r e c o r r e c t C S M A / C D
o p e r a t io n
\u2014P a d d in g is u s e d if d a t a is le s s t h a n 4 6 b y t e s
\u2022
M a x im u m le n g t h is n e e d e d t o lim it b u f f e r s p a c e a n d
ensure fair access
9
F ig u r e 1 3 .6
E x a m p le o f a n E th e r n e t a d d r e s s in h e x a d e c im a l n o ta tio n
\u2022
Address is pre-defined from the factory
\u2014T ie d t o a n in d iv id u a l N I C ( N e t w o r k I n t e r f a c e C a r d )
\u20146 b y t e s t h a t is w r it t e n in h e x a d e c im a l n o t a t io n
\u2022
S o u r c e a d d r e s s is a lw a y s a u n ic a s t a d d r e s s
\u2022
M ulticast address defines a group of addresses
\u2014O n e s e n d e r , m u lt ip le r e c e iv e r s
\u2022
Broadcast address refers to everyone on the LAN
1 0
F ig u r e 1 3 .7
U nicast and m ulticast addresses
T h e le a s t s ig n ific a n t b it o f th e fir s t b y te d e fin e s th e
ty p e o f a d d re s s . If th e b it is0 , th e a d d re s s is u n ic a s t;
o th e r w is e , it is m u ltic a s t.
T h e b ro a d c a s t d e s tin a tio n a d d re s s is a s p e c ia l c a s e o f
th e m u ltic a s t a d d r e s s in w h ic h a ll b its a r e 1 s .
1 1
D e fin e th e ty p e o f th e fo llo w in g d e s tin a tio n a d d r e s s e s :
a. 4A :3 0 :1 0 :2 1 :1 0 :1 A
b. 47 :2 0 :1 B :2 E :0 8 :E E
c .F F :F F :F F :F F :F F :F F
S o lu tio n
T o fin d th e ty p e o f th e a d d r e s s , w e n e e d to lo o k a t th e
s e c o n d h e x a d e c im a l d ig it fr o m th e le ft. I f it is e v e n , th e

a d d r e s s is u n ic a s t. I f it is o d d , th e a d d r e s s is m u ltic a s t. I f all digits are F \u2019s, the address is broadcast. Therefore, w e h a v e th e fo llo w in g :

a. T h is is a u n ic a s t a d d r e s s b e c a u s e A in b in a r y is 1 0 1 0 .
b .T h is is a m u ltic a s t a d d r e s s b e c a u s e 7 in b in a r y is 0 1 1 1 .
c .T his is a broadcast address because all digits are F \u2019s.
E x a m p le 1 3 .1
1 2
Show how the address 47 :2 0 :1 B :2 E :0 8 :E E is sentouton
lin e .
S o lu tio n
T h e a d d r e s s is s e n t le ft-to -r ig h t, b y te b y b y te ; fo r e a c h
b y te , it is s e n t r ig h t-to -le ft, b it b y b it, a s s h o w n b e lo w :
E x a m p le 1 3 .2

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