Equilibrium of a Fluid Element \u00a5 Hydrostatic Pressure \u00a5
Manometry \u00a5 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Objects \u00a5
Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids \u00a5 Buoyancy \u00a5 Stability
of Submerged and Floating Bodies \u00a5 Pressure Variation in
Rigid-Body Motion of a Fluid
Integral Relations for a Control Volume \u00a5 Reynolds Transport Theorem \u00a5 Conservation of Mass \u00a5 Conservation of Momentum \u00a5 Conservation of Energy \u00a5 Differential Relations for Fluid Motion \u00a5 Mass Conservation\u00d0Continuity Equation \u00a5
Relationship between Forces and Rate of Deformation \u00a5 The
Navier\u00d0Stokes Equations \u00a5 Energy Conservation \u00d1 The
Mechanical and Thermal Energy Equations \u00a5 Boundary
Conditions \u00a5 Vorticity in Incompressible Flow \u00a5 Stream
Function \u00a5 Inviscid Irrotational Flow: Potential Flow
Introduction \u00a5 One-Dimensional Flow \u00a5 Normal Shock Wave
\u00a5 One-Dimensional Flow with Heat Addition \u00a5 Quasi-One-
Dimensional Flow \u00a5 Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flow
Introduction \u00a5 Classi\u00decation of Non-Newtonian Fluids \u00a5
Apparent Viscosity \u00a5 Constitutive Equations \u00a5 Rheological
Property Measurements \u00a5 Fully Developed Laminar Pressure
Drops for Time-Independent Non-Newtonian Fluids \u00a5 Fully
Introduction \u00a5 Sliding Friction and Its Consequences \u00a5 Lubricant Properties \u00a5 Fluid Film Bearings \u00a5 Dry and Semilubricated Bearings \u00a5 Rolling Element Bearings \u00a5 Lubricant Supply Methods
Introduction \u00a5 Experimental Techniques \u00a5 Surface Roughness, Adhesion, and Friction \u00a5 Scratching, Wear, and Indentation \u00a5 Boundary Lubrication
If the sum of the external forces acting on a \u00dfuid element is zero, the \u00dfuid will be either at rest or moving as a solid body \u00d1 in either case, we say the \u00dfuid element is in equilibrium. In this section we consider \u00dfuids in such an equilibrium state. For \u00dfuids in equilibrium the only internal stresses acting will be normal forces, since the shear stresses depend on velocity gradients, and all such gradients, by the de\u00denition of equilibrium, are zero. If one then carries out a balance between the normal surface stresses and the body forces, assumed proportional to volume or mass, such as gravity, acting on an elementary prismatic \u00dfuid volume, the resulting equilibrium equations, after shrinking the volume to zero, show that the normal stresses at a point are the same in all directions, and since they are known to be negative, this common value is denoted by \u00d0p, p being the pressure.
The \u00derst two of these imply that the pressure is the same in all directions at the same vertical height in a gravitational \u00deeld. The third, whereg is the speci\u00dec weight, shows that the pressure increases with depth in a gravitational \u00deeld, the variation depending on r (z ). For homogeneous \u00dfuids, for which r= constant, this last equation can be integrated immediately, yielding
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