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Fluid Mechanics

Fluid Mechanics

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Kreith, F.; Berger, S.A.; et. al.\u201cFluid Mechanics\u201d
Mechanical Engineering Handbook
Ed. Frank Kreith
Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC,1999
c
\ue0001999 by CRC Press LLC
3-1
\u00a9 1999 by CRC Press LLC
Fluid Mechanics*
3.1 Fluid Statics......................................................................3-2

Equilibrium of a Fluid Element \u00a5 Hydrostatic Pressure \u00a5
Manometry \u00a5 Hydrostatic Forces on Submerged Objects \u00a5
Hydrostatic Forces in Layered Fluids \u00a5 Buoyancy \u00a5 Stability
of Submerged and Floating Bodies \u00a5 Pressure Variation in
Rigid-Body Motion of a Fluid

3.2 Equations of Motion and Potential Flow......................3-11

Integral Relations for a Control Volume \u00a5 Reynolds Transport Theorem \u00a5 Conservation of Mass \u00a5 Conservation of Momentum \u00a5 Conservation of Energy \u00a5 Differential Relations for Fluid Motion \u00a5 Mass Conservation\u00d0Continuity Equation \u00a5

Momentum Conservation \u00a5 Analysis of Rate of Deformation \u00a5

Relationship between Forces and Rate of Deformation \u00a5 The
Navier\u00d0Stokes Equations \u00a5 Energy Conservation \u00d1 The
Mechanical and Thermal Energy Equations \u00a5 Boundary
Conditions \u00a5 Vorticity in Incompressible Flow \u00a5 Stream
Function \u00a5 Inviscid Irrotational Flow: Potential Flow

3.3 Similitude: Dimensional Analysis and
Data Correlation.............................................................3-28
Dimensional Analysis \u00a5 Correlation of Experimental Data and
Theoretical Values
3.4 Hydraulics of Pipe Systems...........................................3-44
Basic Computations \u00a5 Pipe Design \u00a5 Valve Selection \u00a5 Pump
Selection \u00a5 Other Considerations
3.5 Open Channel Flow.......................................................3-61
De\u00denition \u00a5 Uniform Flow \u00a5 Critical Flow \u00a5 Hydraulic Jump \u00a5
Weirs \u00a5 Gradually Varied Flow
3.6 External Incompressible Flows......................................3-70
Introduction and Scope \u00a5 Boundary Layers \u00a5 Drag \u00a5 Lift \u00a5
Boundary Layer Control \u00a5 Computation vs. Experiment
3.7 Compressible Flow.........................................................3-81

Introduction \u00a5 One-Dimensional Flow \u00a5 Normal Shock Wave
\u00a5 One-Dimensional Flow with Heat Addition \u00a5 Quasi-One-
Dimensional Flow \u00a5 Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flow

3.8 Multiphase Flow.............................................................3-98
Introduction \u00a5 Fundamentals \u00a5 Gas\u00d0Liquid Two-Phase Flow \u00a5
Gas\u00d0Solid, Liquid\u00d0Solid Two-Phase Flows
*Nomenclature for Section 3 appears at end of chapter.
Frank Kreith
University of Colorado
Stanley A. Berger
University of California, Berkeley
Stuart W. Churchill
University of Pennsylvania
J. Paul Tullis
Utah State University
Frank M. White
University of Rhode Island
Alan T. McDonald
Purdue University
Ajay Kumar
NASA Langley Research Center
John C. Chen
Lehigh University
Thomas F. Irvine, Jr.
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Massimo Capobianchi
State University of New York, Stony Brook
Francis E. Kennedy
Dartmouth College
E. Richard Booser
Consultant, Scotia, NY
Donald F. Wilcock
Tribolock, Inc.
Robert F. Boehm
University of Nevada-Las Vegas
Rolf D. Reitz
University of Wisconsin
Sherif A. Sherif
University of Florida
Bharat Bhushan
The Ohio State University
3-2
Section 3
\u00a9 1999 by CRC Press LLC
3.9 Non-Newtonian Flows.................................................3-114

Introduction \u00a5 Classi\u00decation of Non-Newtonian Fluids \u00a5
Apparent Viscosity \u00a5 Constitutive Equations \u00a5 Rheological
Property Measurements \u00a5 Fully Developed Laminar Pressure
Drops for Time-Independent Non-Newtonian Fluids \u00a5 Fully

Developed Turbulent Flow Pressure Drops \u00a5 Viscoelastic Fluids
3.10 Tribology, Lubrication, and Bearing Design...............3-128

Introduction \u00a5 Sliding Friction and Its Consequences \u00a5 Lubricant Properties \u00a5 Fluid Film Bearings \u00a5 Dry and Semilubricated Bearings \u00a5 Rolling Element Bearings \u00a5 Lubricant Supply Methods

3.11 Pumps and Fans...........................................................3-170
Introduction \u00a5 Pumps \u00a5 Fans
3.12 Liquid Atomization and Spraying................................3-177
Spray Characterization \u00a5 Atomizer Design Considerations \u00a5
Atomizer Types
3.13 Flow Measurement.......................................................3-186
Direct Methods \u00a5 Restriction Flow Meters for Flow in Ducts \u00a5
Linear Flow Meters \u00a5 Traversing Methods \u00a5 Viscosity
Measurements
3.14 Micro/Nanotribology....................................................3-197

Introduction \u00a5 Experimental Techniques \u00a5 Surface Roughness, Adhesion, and Friction \u00a5 Scratching, Wear, and Indentation \u00a5 Boundary Lubrication

3.1 Fluid Statics
Stanley A. Berger
Equilibrium of a Fluid Element

If the sum of the external forces acting on a \u00dfuid element is zero, the \u00dfuid will be either at rest or moving as a solid body \u00d1 in either case, we say the \u00dfuid element is in equilibrium. In this section we consider \u00dfuids in such an equilibrium state. For \u00dfuids in equilibrium the only internal stresses acting will be normal forces, since the shear stresses depend on velocity gradients, and all such gradients, by the de\u00denition of equilibrium, are zero. If one then carries out a balance between the normal surface stresses and the body forces, assumed proportional to volume or mass, such as gravity, acting on an elementary prismatic \u00dfuid volume, the resulting equilibrium equations, after shrinking the volume to zero, show that the normal stresses at a point are the same in all directions, and since they are known to be negative, this common value is denoted by \u00d0p, p being the pressure.

Hydrostatic Pressure
If we carry out an equilibrium of forces on an elementary volume elementdxdydz, the forces being
pressures acting on the faces of the element and gravity acting in the \u00d0zdirection, we obtain
(3.1.1)

The \u00derst two of these imply that the pressure is the same in all directions at the same vertical height in a gravitational \u00deeld. The third, whereg is the speci\u00dec weight, shows that the pressure increases with depth in a gravitational \u00deeld, the variation depending on r (z ). For homogeneous \u00dfuids, for which r= constant, this last equation can be integrated immediately, yielding

\u00b6\u00b6
\u00b6\u00b6
\u00b6\u00b6
r
g
px
py
pz
g
=
=
=- =-
0, and

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