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Table Of Contents

Introduction
Matter and Materials
Classification of Matter - Grade 10
1.1 Mixtures
1.1.1 Heterogeneous mixtures
1.1.2 Homogeneous mixtures
1.1.3 Separating mixtures
1.2 Pure Substances: Elements and Compounds
1.2.1 Elements
1.2.2 Compounds
1.3 Giving names and formulae to substances
1.4 Metals, Semi-metals and Non-metals
1.4.1 Metals
1.4.2 Non-metals
1.4.3 Semi-metals
1.5 Electrical conductors, semi-conductors and insulators
1.6 Thermal Conductors and Insulators
1.7 Magnetic and Non-magnetic Materials
1.8 Summary
2.1 Introduction: The atom as the building block of matter
2.2 Molecules
2.2.1 Representing molecules
2.3 Intramolecular and intermolecular forces
2.4 The Kinetic Theory of Matter
2.5 The Properties of Matter
2.6 Summary
The Atom - Grade 10
3.1 Models of the Atom
3.1.1 The Plum Pudding Model
3.1.2 Rutherford’s model of the atom
3.1.3 The Bohr Model
3.2 How big is an atom?
3.2.1 How heavy is an atom?
3.2.2 How big is an atom?
3.3 Atomic structure
3.3.1 The Electron
3.3.2 The Nucleus
3.4 Atomic number and atomic mass number
3.5 Isotopes
3.5.1 What is an isotope?
3.5.2 Relative atomic mass
3.6 Energy quantisation and electron configuration
3.6.1 The energy of electrons
3.6.2 Energy quantisation and line emission spectra
3.6.3 Electron configuration
3.6.4 Core and valence electrons
3.6.5 The importance of understanding electron configuration
3.7 Ionisation Energy and the Periodic Table
3.7.1 Ions
3.7.2 Ionisation Energy
3.8 The Arrangement of Atoms in the Periodic Table
3.8.1 Groups in the periodic table
3.8.2 Periods in the periodic table
3.9 Summary
Atomic Combinations - Grade 11
4.1 Why do atoms bond?
4.2 Energy and bonding
4.3 What happens when atoms bond?
4.4 Covalent Bonding
4.4.1 The nature of the covalent bond
4.5 Lewis notation and molecular structure
4.6 Electronegativity
4.6.1 Non-polar and polar covalent bonds
4.6.2 Polar molecules
4.7 Ionic Bonding
4.7.1 The nature of the ionic bond
4.7.2 The crystal lattice structure of ionic compounds
4.7.3 Properties of Ionic Compounds
4.8 Metallic bonds
4.8.1 The nature of the metallic bond
4.8.2 The properties of metals
4.9 Writing chemical formulae
4.9.1 The formulae of covalent compounds
4.9.2 The formulae of ionic compounds
4.10 The Shape of Molecules
4.10.1 Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory
4.10.2 Determining the shape of a molecule
4.11 Oxidation numbers
4.12 Summary
Intermolecular Forces - Grade 11
5.1 Types of Intermolecular Forces
5.2 Understanding intermolecular forces
5.3 Intermolecular forces in liquids
5.4 Summary
Solutions and solubility - Grade 11
6.1 Types of solutions
6.2 Forces and solutions
6.3 Solubility
6.4 Summary
Atomic Nuclei - Grade 11
7.1 Nuclear structure and stability
7.2 The Discovery of Radiation
7.3 Radioactivity and Types of Radiation
7.3.1 Alpha (α) particles and alpha decay
7.3.2 Beta (β) particles and beta decay
7.3.3 Gamma (γ) rays and gamma decay
7.9 Nuclear Fusion
7.10 Nucleosynthesis
7.10.1 Age of Nucleosynthesis (225 s - 103
7.10.4 Age of Stars and Galaxies (the universe today)
7.11 Summary
8.1 A review of the kinetic theory of matter
8.2 Boyle’s Law: Pressure and volume of an enclosed gas
8.3 Charles’s Law: Volume and Temperature of an enclosed
8.4 The relationship between temperature and pressure
8.5 The general gas equation
8.6 The ideal gas equation
8.7 Molar volume of gases
8.8 Ideal gases and non-ideal gas behaviour
8.9 Summary
Organic Molecules - Grade 12
9.1 What is organic chemistry?
9.2 Sources of carbon
9.3 Unique properties of carbon
9.4 Representing organic compounds
9.4.1 Molecular formula
9.4.2 Structural formula
9.4.3 Condensed structural formula
9.5 Isomerism in organic compounds
9.6 Functional groups
9.7 The Hydrocarbons
9.7.1 The Alkanes
9.7.2 Naming the alkanes
9.7.3 Properties of the alkanes
9.7.4 Reactions of the alkanes
9.7.5 The alkenes
9.7.6 Naming the alkenes
9.7.7 The properties of the alkenes
9.7.8 Reactions of the alkenes
9.7.9 The Alkynes
9.7.10 Naming the alkynes
9.8 The Alcohols
9.8.1 Naming the alcohols
9.8.2 Physical and chemical properties of the alcohols
9.9 Carboxylic Acids
9.9.1 Physical Properties
9.9.2 Derivatives of carboxylic acids: The esters
9.10 The Amino Group
9.11 The Carbonyl Group
9.12 Summary
Organic Macromolecules - Grade
10.1 Polymers
10.2 How do polymers form?
10.2.1 Addition polymerisation
10.2.2 Condensation polymerisation
10.3 The chemical properties of polymers
10.4 Types of polymers
10.5 Plastics
10.5.1 The uses of plastics
10.5.2 Thermoplastics and thermosetting plastics
10.5.3 Plastics and the environment
10.6 Biological Macromolecules
10.6.1 Carbohydrates
10.6.2 Proteins
10.6.3 Nucleic Acids
10.7 Summary
Chemical Change
11.1 Physical changes in matter
11.2 Chemical Changes in Matter
11.2.1 Decomposition reactions
11.2.2 Synthesis reactions
11.3 Energy changes in chemical reactions
11.4 Conservation of atoms and mass in reactions
11.5 Law of constant composition
11.6 Volume relationships in gases
11.7 Summary
12.1 Chemical symbols
12.2 Writing chemical formulae
12.3 Balancing chemical equations
12.3.1 The law of conservation of mass
12.3.2 Steps to balance a chemical equation
12.4 State symbols and other information
12.5 Summary
13.1 The Mole
13.2 Molar Mass
13.3 An equation to calculate moles and mass in chemical
13.4 Molecules and compounds
13.5 The Composition of Substances
13.6 Molar Volumes of Gases
13.7 Molar concentrations in liquids
13.8 Stoichiometric calculations
13.9 Summary
14.1 What causes the energy changes in chemical reac-
14.2 Exothermic and endothermic reactions
14.3 The heat of reaction
14.4 Examples of endothermic and exothermic reactions
14.5 Spontaneous and non-spontaneous reactions
14.6 Activation energy and the activated complex
14.7 Summary
Types of Reactions - Grade 11
15.1 Acid-base reactions
15.1.1 What are acids and bases?
15.1.2 Defining acids and bases
15.1.3 Conjugate acid-base pairs
15.1.4 Acid-base reactions
15.1.5 Acid-carbonate reactions
15.2 Redox reactions
15.2.1 Oxidation and reduction
15.2.2 Redox reactions
15.3 Addition, substitution and elimination reactions
15.3.1 Addition reactions
15.3.2 Elimination reactions
15.3.3 Substitution reactions
15.4 Summary
Reaction Rates - Grade 12
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Factors affecting reaction rates
16.3 Reaction rates and collision theory
16.4 Measuring Rates of Reaction
16.5 Mechanism of reaction and catalysis
16.6 Chemical equilibrium
16.6.1 Open and closed systems
16.6.2 Reversible reactions
16.6.3 Chemical equilibrium
16.7 The equilibrium constant
16.7.1 Calculating the equilibrium constant
16.7.2 The meaning of kc values
16.10 Summary
Electrochemical Reactions - Grade
17.1 Introduction
17.2 The Galvanic Cell
17.2.1 Half-cell reactions in the Zn-Cu cell
17.2.2 Components of the Zn-Cu cell
17.2.3 The Galvanic cell
17.2.4 Uses and applications of the galvanic cell
17.3 The Electrolytic cell
17.3.1 The electrolysis of copper sulphate
17.3.2 The electrolysis of water
17.3.3 A comparison of galvanic and electrolytic cells
17.4 Standard Electrode Potentials
17.4.1 The different reactivities of metals
17.4.2 Equilibrium reactions in half cells
17.4.3 Measuring electrode potential
17.4.4 The standard hydrogen electrode
17.4.5 Standard electrode potentials
17.4.6 Combining half cells
17.4.7 Uses of standard electrode potential
17.5 Balancing redox reactions
17.6 Applications of electrochemistry
17.6.1 Electroplating
17.6.2 The production of chlorine
17.6.3 Extraction of aluminium
17.7 Summary
Chemical Systems
The Water Cycle - Grade 10
18.1 Introduction
18.2 The importance of water
18.3 The movement of water through the water cycle
18.4 The microscopic structure of water
18.4.1 The polar nature of water
18.4.2 Hydrogen bonding in water molecules
18.5 The unique properties of water
18.6 Water conservation
18.7 Summary
19.1 Introduction
19.2 Nitrogen fixation
19.3 Nitrification
19.4 Denitrification
19.5 Human Influences on the Nitrogen Cycle
19.6 The industrial fixation of nitrogen
19.7 Summary
The Hydrosphere - Grade 10
20.1 Introduction
20.2 Interactions of the hydrosphere
20.3 Exploring the Hydrosphere
20.4 The Importance of the Hydrosphere
20.5 Ions in aqueous solution
20.5.1 Dissociation in water
20.5.2 Ions and water hardness
20.5.3 The pH scale
20.10 Summary
The Lithosphere - Grade 11
21.1 Introduction
21.2 The chemistry of the earth’s crust
21.3 A brief history of mineral use
21.4 Energy resources and their uses
21.5 Mining and Mineral Processing: Gold
21.5.1 Introduction
21.5.2 Mining the Gold
21.5.3 Processing the gold ore
21.5.4 Characteristics and uses of gold
21.5.5 Environmental impacts of gold mining
21.6 Mining and mineral processing: Iron
21.6.1 Iron mining and iron ore processing
21.6.2 Types of iron
21.6.3 Iron in South Africa
21.7 Mining and mineral processing: Phosphates
21.7.1 Mining phosphates
21.7.2 Uses of phosphates
21.8 Energy resources and their uses: Coal
21.8.1 The formation of coal
21.8.2 How coal is removed from the ground
21.8.3 The uses of coal
21.8.4 Coal and the South African economy
21.8.5 The environmental impacts of coal mining
21.9 Energy resources and their uses: Oil
21.9.1 How oil is formed
21.9.2 Extracting oil
21.9.3 Other oil products
21.9.4 The environmental impacts of oil extraction and use
21.10 Alternative energy resources
21.11 Summary
The Atmosphere - Grade 11
22.1 The composition of the atmosphere
22.2 The structure of the atmosphere
22.2.1 The troposphere
22.2.2 The stratosphere
22.2.3 The mesosphere
22.2.4 The thermosphere
22.3 Greenhouse gases and global warming
22.3.1 The heating of the atmosphere
22.3.2 The greenhouse gases and global warming
22.3.3 The consequences of global warming
22.3.4 Taking action to combat global warming
22.4 Summary
23.1 Introduction
23.2 Sasol
23.2.1 Sasol today: Technology and production
23.2.2 Sasol and the environment
23.3 The Chloralkali Industry
23.3.1 The Industrial Production of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide
23.3.2 Soaps and Detergents
23.4 The Fertiliser Industry
23.4.1 The value of nutrients
23.4.2 The Role of fertilisers
23.4.3 The Industrial Production of Fertilisers
23.4.4 Fertilisers and the Environment: Eutrophication
23.5 Electrochemistry and batteries
23.5.1 How batteries work
23.5.2 Battery capacity and energy
23.5.3 Lead-acid batteries
23.5.4 The zinc-carbon dry cell
23.5.5 Environmental considerations
23.6 Summary
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Chemistry Grade 10-12

Chemistry Grade 10-12

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Published by: srid00 on Oct 14, 2011
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