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The present work addresses the implementation of a split-element algorithm for modelling fracture in terminal effects (TE) problems. The algorithm is incorporated within Vec-Dyna3D hydrocode (Technical report DSWA-TR-96-95. Alexandria (VA): Defense Special Weapons Agency, 1998), which is a prototype of LS-DYNA3D (Version 950. Livermore: Livermore Software Technology Corporation, May 1999). This algorithm has also been implemented in LS-DYNA2D (UCID-18756, Rev. 2. Livermore: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1984.) and it is veri\ufb01ed numerically in the present paper. In doing so, tensile and shear modes of fracture due to high velocity impact are analysed in detail. Plate collision (the spallation problem) may be considered as a test problem for achieving the tensile mode of fracture. Encounter of a compact projectile with a plate (the plugging problem) plays similar role for the shear mode. In\ufb02uence of choice of effective (equivalent) stress involved in a 3D-extension of a fracture criterion is analysed from two points of view: (i) the mesh effects, and (ii) a role of the complex stress state. The strain- rate sensitive Maxwell-type model (J. Appl. Mech. Tech. Phys. 13(6) (1972) 868.) is employed as a constitutive model. Workability of the algorithm in 3D case is illustrated with a numerical example for the plugging problem. The calculations being conducted show an appropriateness of the present approach for TE problems. Crown Copyrightr 2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Eulerian\u2013Lagrangian hydrocodes. Nevertheless, Lagrangian hydrocodes are very attractive for evaluation of the fragment effect because they prevent mass diffusion through contact and free boundaries, which allows one to estimate accurately the momentum and energy deposited to a target. The major disadvantage of the Lagrangian approach is its intolerance to severe deformations. At the same time, many real materials do not withstand large deformations and fail much earlier.
Hydrocodes take failure into account in a number of ways. Some of the methods impart Eulerian features into the Lagrangian hydrocodes. For example, the popular method for modelling fragmentation with the Lagrangian approach is an erosion algorithm implemented in EPIC and DYNA [1,2]. However, eroding elements due to failure results in the Eulerian-type mass diffusion through the fragment boundaries. Another radical approach, which can be used with any Lagrangian hydrocode, is the phenomenological representation of the crack \ufb01eld (see, e.g. ). This continuum-type approach is convenient to implement, however, the element erosion is required to calculate the brittle-type fracture followed by the fragment separation in TE problems. The next in order of detailing the physical process of fracture is consideration of the crack opening within the hydrocode\u2019s numerical scheme. The advent of crack-containing \ufb01nite elements in the literature aims at incorporation of the fracture mechanics solutions into the \ufb01nite element calculations (see, e.g. ). This approach seems to be more suitable for the calculations with a few isolated cracks; numerical examples of this sort for 2D- and 3D-crack propagation can be found in papers [5,6].
The present algorithm for processing the brittle-type fracture is based on a simpli\ufb01ed approach, which neglects many physical peculiarities in the vicinity of the crack tip. Development of the crack surface is accompanied by stress relaxation: within the present approach only this fact is considered to be essential. The split-element methodology is not aimed at determination of the exact location of cracks and shape of fragments. The primary objective of the present approach is to design an instrument for both calculation of separation of fragments from a target and localisation of the fracture zones. This option could enable us to assess mass and velocity of fragments within the mesh accuracy and to evaluate the fragment effect on target.
A similar approach, which exploits ideas of the discrete element method (DEM), has been suggested in  for structural calculations, and a variety of hydrocodes with the DEM-features have been developed (see, e.g. ). The prototype of the present approach implemented into a Lagrangian\u2013Eulerian \ufb01nite-volume code has been developed in . The \ufb01rst incorporation of this option within LS-DYNA2D has been attempted by the author in ; however, the split-element algorithm has not been properly veri\ufb01ed and an elastic-plastic material model with properties insensitive to strain rates was employed. The strain-rate sensitive Maxwell-type model  is used in the present paper. Outline of an implementation of the model into the DYNA-hydrocode is described in the second part of the paper.
The split-element algorithm and fracture model are brie\ufb02y described in the third part of the paper. Firstly, a fracture criterion is considered. When employing fracture criteria dependent on stress, an equivalent stress is usually employed that reduces complex stress state to the only variable. This variable, which is typically an algebraic function of components of the stress tensor, is implicitly associated with a fracture mode; for example, an equivalent stress proportional to the maximum principal stress is associated with the tensile fracture mode, and so on. Fracture is a complex process involving a number of mechanisms; therefore, treating the crack development as
one governed by a speci\ufb01c fracture mode is very simplistic for the case of projectile-target interaction. Nevertheless, the fracture experiments are usually conducted at a simple stress condition, so, the use of single \u2018effective\u2019 or \u2018equivalent\u2019 stress is in common practice. It is yet to be understood how the complex stress state in the vicinity of the crack tip affects the crack opening. At present generalised phenomenological approaches are very popular: a closed or semi-closed surface in a stress space related to quasi-static tests is considered as the failure criterion. For example, this type of failure surfaces for simulation of the concrete behaviour is known as a family of cap models , and these surfaces are expressed as limiting dependencies between the \ufb01rst and second invariants of the stress tensor. Many materials exhibit rate sensitivity in dynamic conditions; therefore, the high strain-rate problems do not suit fully to the formulation employing quasi-static fracture criteria. In Section 3.1 we consider a possible way for taking the complex stress state into a time-dependent fracture criterion. From another angle, the effective stress in a fracture criterion may be calculated either in a reference system associated with the \ufb01nite-element mesh or in an invariant form. In the subsequent Section 4 we analyse how this choice related to the complex stress state affects numerical results.
Analytical solutions of the damage fragmentation problems are very rare (e.g. see ); the solutions in a \ufb01nite form for the problems involving elastic and plastic \ufb02ow of strain-rate sensitive materials do not probably exist. Therefore, proper numerical testing is considered to be the only viable option for veri\ufb01cation of the algorithm; again, numerical solutions exist for a number of well-known fragmentation problems con\ufb01rmed by experiments. Examples of such problems, which might be associated with two basic tensile and shear modes of fracture, are spallation due to a plate collision and the plugging due to ballistic impact. Numerical convergence of any method can be checked for by calculations with re\ufb01ning grids. In the multi-dimensional case the convergence formally should be veri\ufb01ed on the meshes with arbitrary orientations, which is practically impossible; therefore, the present consideration is restricted to meshes with a \ufb01xed orientation. Hundreds of nodes in every space direction are desirable for a good resolution of stress waves. This requires millions of nodes and elements for a 3D-problem, which means that numerical veri\ufb01cation is very dif\ufb01cult for the 3D-case. A compromise is considered in the paper: convergence of the method is examined for 2D-cases, and 3D-case is illustrated with an example followed by comparison with 2D-calculation on similar grid.
According to the \ufb02owchart of the DYNA hydrocode, outlined in , the program block associated with implementation of material model involves several stages from calculation of the stress deviator from a constitutive equation further to determination of pressure from an equation of state and calculation of total stress. Usually, the primary attention is paid to the calculation of the stress deviator because the user-de\ufb01ned-material subroutine in LS-DYNA3D deals with this stage only. The model employed in the present paper operates with a generalisation of the Mie- Gruneisen equation of state , so the whole material implementation block is being updated.
In the current section we focus on realisation of the constitutive equation. Omitting details of the stress rate characterisation (see, e.g. ), the stress rate operator in LS-DYNA is split into a sum of rotational and material differential operators. Concentrating on the material stress rate,
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