A discrete model for a reinforced rubber-like material is proposed in order to simulate numerically a debris tyre impact on a typical structure of an aircraft when using the FE code LS-DYNA. The model is calibrated using the static and dynamic test data for the actual tyre material.
The dynamics of the tyre projectile is validated when comparing the numerical predictions with the response of a square aluminium alloy plate subject to a ribbon projectile impact having different initial velocities and impacting the plate at an angle of 301. Good agreement is obtained in terms of the strains in the plate caused by the ribbon impact. The numerically predicted deformations of the projectile also represent well the dynamics of the tyre ribbon recorded during the experiments. Some characteristic features of a soft projectile impact on a deformable plate are discussed.
The rebound of a projectile from a surface has been intensively studied in connection with the ballistic mechanics of ricochet for rigid and deformable bodies[1,2]. A new insight into the response of structural components associated with elastic\u2013plastic large deformations is provided nowadays by the numerical simulations (e.g.[3\u20135]), aiming at an improvement of design and of an increase in product safety.
The vast majority of studies on projectile rebound from a structure consider both the structure and the projectile to have a comparable stiffness and hence the subsequent recovery of the stored elastic energy causes motion changes in the projectile. In the case of an impact of a rubber like projectile on a metal plate, a signi\ufb01cant proportion of the initial kinetic energy participates in the deformation of the projectile, so that the kinetic energy transferred to the plate depends signi\ufb01cantly on the interaction between the plate and the
The aircraft tyre materials used in practice have a complex structure consisting of a rubber-like part and reinforcement. The reinforcing cords are ropes twisted from Nylon \ufb01bre and their stiffness in compression is signi\ufb01cantly lower then the stiffness in tension, moreover they are placed at different angles[6,7]. This material structure causes anisotropic properties in the different directions of loading and non-linear stress- strain dependence when subjected to large deformations. The complex material structure requires an adequate modelling, which can represent correctly the stiffness of the impactor since this characteristic can signi\ufb01cantly in\ufb02uence the interaction with a structure due to the large \ufb02exibility of the soft projectile.
Several approaches are usually used in the \ufb01nite element analysis of cord-reinforced composites. One class of computational models are based on the analysis techniques for laminated \ufb01brous composites[8,9]. The material properties of the individual components are averaged over a layer of a laminated shell element and described by an anisotropic material law. This approach however, requires assumptions for a number of material constants related to the \u2018averaged\u2019 layers, which causes dif\ufb01culties prior to the analysis and after, for the recovering of the properties of the individual components. This approach could have restricted application in the case of very large anisotropy, which might result in a non-positive de\ufb01ned elasticity matrix.
An alternative approach is to use one-dimensional bar elements to simulate the behaviour of the reinforcing cords. These elements are superimposed on the rubber elements by satisfying the compatibility conditions at their common nodes. This approach was \ufb01rst proposed for reinforced concrete and applied later to rubber composites[7,11]. The concept is simple and allows the modelling of anisotropic material properties of reinforced rubber when varying the bar position and orientation of the bar elements. The major disadvantage of this approach is that the locations and orientation of the cords are restricted by the \ufb01nite element discretisation, which could present dif\ufb01culties for a high number of reinforcing cords. However, the low
Another ef\ufb01cient approach has been developed to model cord-reinforced composites, which is characterised by superimposing so-called \u2018rebar\u2019 elements, consisting of one or more reinforced cord layers with arbitrary orientations, on corresponding rubber elements. This technique was originally applied for reinforced concrete
A further step in modelling reinforced rubber-like materials is related to the development of a mixed two- \ufb01eld displacement-pressure energy function, which leads to constitutive equations applicable for \ufb01bre reinforced materials that experience \ufb01nite strains[17,18]. Obviously, this approach requires an implementation of new material model in the FE codes.
The primary objective of the present study is to develop a reliable and inexpensive model for a tyre material when using the available material library in LS-DYNA and to estimate the applicability of such model for simulating an impact on a deformable structure. Given the complexities of the problem, viz., large dynamic strains and contact conditions between the missile and the plate, it was decided to take the simplest possible approach within the limitations of DYNA. Hence the second approach was used, i.e., one-dimensional bar elements representing the reinforcing cords. The proposed discrete model for the tyre material is calibrated using the static and dynamic test data for the actual tyre material. The vali- dation of the model is performed when comparing the numerical predictions with the response of a square aluminium alloy plate to a tyre projectile impact having different initial velocities and impacting the plate at 301.
The tested tyre material has a complex structure consisting of a rubber-like material reinforced with nylon cords. The cords are placed at different angles, but in general these angles are smaller than 301 with respect to the circumferential axis of the tyre (Fig. 1(a)). The reinforcing cords are ropes twisted from Nylon \ufb01bres and their stiffness in compression is signi\ufb01cantly lower then the stiffness in tension. This material structure results in anisotropic properties and a non-linear behaviour when subjected to large deformations, as revealed by the test data presented in. The experimental static material properties in tension in thex andy-directions are shown inFig. 1(b) and (c), respectively. Thex-direction for the tested and modelled specimens is associated with the circumferential direction of an actual tyre and they-direction corresponds to the tyre radial direction (Fig. 1(a)). Thez-direction is the through thickness direction for an actual tyre. During a debris impact on a structure, large compressive deformations of the projectile and large bending deformations, and therefore considerable tensile strains can occur depending on the angle of impact due to the \ufb02exibility of the projectile. Thus, to accurately model the way a tyre projectile deforms upon impact, both tension and compression data are required.
The approach, which uses one-dimensional bar elements to simulate the behaviour of the reinforcing cords in rubber, is used to model the tyre material. In general, the properties of the rubber-like part determine the \ufb02exibility of the material, whilst reinforcing cords are used to control the anisotropic properties in tension in thex andy-direction.
It is assumed that there is no anisotropy in thez-direction but that the model material retains the orthotropic properties in tension inx andy-directions, similar to the actual material. These material properties are modelled using layers of cords placed at (x,y) planes, which are situated at a constant distance along the
for tension in thex andy-direction, respectively, which are the same as the specimen dimensions from. The cords are placed at a certain constant angle with respect to thex-axis, which is determined by the uniform \ufb01nite element discretisation for the rubber part of the tyre material. It is assumed that the cords are
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