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chap 7

chap 7

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Published by: api-3763138 on Oct 16, 2008
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SamplingandSampling
Distributions
USINGSTATISTICSOxford Cereals
TYPESOF SAMPLINGMETHODSSimpleRandomSamplesSystematic amplesStratifiedSamplesCluster amplesEVALUATINGSURVEY WORTHINESSSurveyErrorsEthicalssuesSAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONSSAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONOFTHE MEANTheUnbiasedroperty f the SampleMeanStandardrroroftheMean
7.1
7.2
SamplingromNormallyistributedopulationsSamplingromNon-NormallyistributedPopulations-TheentralimitTheorem7.5SAMPLINGDISTRIBUTIONOFTHE PROPORTION7.6ct(CD-ROMOPrqSAMPLTNGFROMFINITEPOPULATIONSEXCELCOMPANION O CHAPTER
E7.lCreating SimpleRandomSamples(WithoutReplacement)E72 Creating Simulated SamplingDistributions
7,37.4
In thischapter,youlearn:rTo distinguish betweendifferent sarnplingmethodsITheconceptofthe samplingdistributionrTo computeprobabilities related o thesamplemeanandthesampleproportionrThe importance of the CentralLimit Theorem
 
252 CHAPTERSEVEN Sampling ndSamplingDistributions
Using Statistics@ Oxford Cereals
Oxford Cereals ills thousandsf boxesof cerealduringanhour shift. As theplantoperationsmanager,ouare responsiblemonitoring heamountof cerealplacedn eachbox. Tobe consiwithpackageabeling,boxesshouldcontainameanof 368gramscereal.Becausef the speedof theprocess,hecerealweightvarifrombox to box, causingsomeboxesobe underfilled andoverfilled. f theprocesssnot workingproperly,he meanweighttheboxes ouldvarytoomuch rom the abelweightof 368gramsbe acceptable.Because eighingeverysingleboxis too time-consuming,and nefficient,youmust akea sampleof boxes.Foreachsampleselect,ou planto weigh he individualboxesand calculatemean.You need odetermineheprobabilitythat such asamplecouldhavebeen andomly selected romapopulationwhosemean368grams.Basedonyouranalysis,ouwill have odecidewhether o maintain,alter,ordownheprocess.JnChapter ,youusedhe normaldistributionostudyhedistributionof downloadilfor theOurCampus!Web site. In thischapter,youneedo make a decisionaboutcereal-fillingprocess,asedon asampleof cerealboxes.You will learn differentof sampling and about samplingdistributions and how to use them tosolve bproblems.
7.1 TYPESF SAMPLING ETHODS
InSection1.3,a samplewas defined as heportionof apopulationhat hasbeenselectedanalysis.Rather hanselecting very tem in thepopulation,tatistical amplingfocuson collecting a smallrepresentativeroupofthe largerpopulation.The resultsofsamplearehenused o estimate haracteristicsftheentirepopulation.Therearehreereasonsorselecting sample:rSelecting sample s less ime-consuminghanselecting very tem nthepopulation.rSelecting sample s lesscostly han selecting very tem in thepopulation.rAnanalysis f a sample s lesscumbersome ndmorepracticalhanan analysis fentirepopulation.Thesamplingprocessbeginsbydefiningthe frame. The frames a listing of itemsmakeupthepopulation.Framesare datasourcesuchaspopulationists, directories,rSamples redrawn rom frames. naccurater biasedesultscan esult faframeexcludestainportionsof thepopulation.Using different framesogenerateatacaneadoconclusions.Afteryouselectaframe,youdraw a sample rom the frame.Asillustrated n Figuretherearewo kindsof samples:he nonprobabilitysampleand heprobabilitysample.
 
7. : Typesf Survey arnpling cthods 253
FIGURE.1Typesf samples
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JudgmentOuotaSampleSample
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ConvenienceSample
I
NonprobabilityamplesiiChunkSampleTypesof SamplesUsed
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Probabilityamples
lr
-i
SimpleRandomSampleSystematicStratifiedClusterSampleSampleSample
In a nonprobabilitysample,youselect he items or individualswithout knowingtherrprobabilitiesofselection. hus,thetheorythat has been developed orprobabilitysamplingcannotbe applied o nonprobabilitysamples.Acommon type of nonprobabilitysamplingsconveniencesampling.Inconvenience ampling,temsare selectedbasedonly onthe factthatthey are easy, nexpensive,or convenientosample. n many cases,participantsare self-selected.Forexample,manycompaniesconduct surveysbygivingvisitors to theirWeb site heopportunitytocomplete surveyformsand submit them electronically.The responseso thesesurveys anprovideargeamountsof dataquicklyandnexpensively,ut the sample onsists fself-selectedWebusersseep.8).Formany studies, nly a nonprobabilitysamplesuchas ajudgmentsample savailable.najudgmentsample,you getthe opinions ofpreselectedexpertsn thesubjectmatter.Some other commonproceduresofnonprobabilitysampling arequotasamplingand chunk sampling.hesearediscussedn detail n specialized ookson sam-plingmethodsseeeference ).Nonprobabilitysamplescan have certain advantages, uchas convenience, pee{ andowcost.However, heir ack ofaccuracydueo selectioniasandhe act hat he resultsannotbegeneralizedmore than offset theseadvantages. herefore,youshould usenonprobabilitysam-plingmethodsonly for small-scalestudies hatprecedearger nvestigations.Inaprobabilitysample,youselect he items basedon knownprobabilities.Wheneverpossible,youshould useprobabilitysamplingmethods. Probabilitysamplesallowyoutomakeunbiasednferencesbouthepopulationofinterest. npractice,t isoften difficult orimpossible to takeaprobabilitysample.However, youshould work toward achieving aprobabilitysampleand acknowledgeanypotentialbiaseshat mightexist.The four types ofprobabilitysamplesmostcommonly used are simplerandom,systematic,stratified, andcluster samples. hesesampling methodsvary in theircost, accuracy, nd complexity.
SimpleRandomSamples
In a simple random sample, every itern from a frame has thesamechanceof selectionas everyothertem. naddition,every sampleof a fixed sizehas he samechanceof selection severy other sample of that size. Simple random sampling is the most elementary andomsam-plingtechnique. t forms the basis or the other andomsamplingechniques.With simple random sampling,youuser? o represent hesan,ple size and lV torepresentthe frame size.You numbereverytem in the frame from I toN.Thechance hatyouwill selectanyparticularmember of the frame on the firstselections l/N.Youselectsampleswith replacementrwithout replacement.Sampling with replace-ment means hat afteryouselectan item,youreturn it to the frame, where t hashe sarneprob-ability ofbeing selected gain.hnagine hatyouhaveafishbowlcontainingVbusiness ards.

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