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Copy of SPE Aplication in Steel Body PDC Bits

Copy of SPE Aplication in Steel Body PDC Bits

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11/15/2012

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A
~SocietyofPetroleumEngineers!
SPE49256ApplicationsandLimitationsofAdvancedSteelBodyPDCBitTechnology
L.M.Smith,SecurityDBS;V.P.Perrin,Chevron;PetroleumTechnologyCo.;M.A1-Habsi,ADCO;F.Mody,BaroidDrillingFluids,Inc.;R.Delwiche,SecurityDBS;E.Akin,VortexxGroup,Inc.
Copyright1998,SatietyofPeboleumEngineers,Inc.l%ispaperwaspreparedforpresenHional[heT998SPEAnnualTechnicalConferenceandExhibitionheldmNewOrleans.U.S.A.,27-30September,1998.Thtspaperwasseladedforpr-entstionbyanSPEProgramCommitteefollowingreviewofinformationcontainedInanabstractsubmittedbytheaulhar(s).Contentsofthepsper,aspresented,havenotbeenreviewedbytheSocietyofPetroleumEngineersandaresubjectto.mractionbytheauthor(s).Thematerial,aspresented,d&esnotnecessarilyreflectanypasitionofthe%cietyofPetroleumEngineers,itsofficers,ormembersPap-arepfesentedalSPEmeetingsaresubjecttopublicationreviewbyEditorialCommitteesoftheSccietyofPetroleumEngineers.PermissiontompyIsrestrictedtoanabstrscfofnotnwrethan300words.Illustrationsnsaynotbecopied.Theabstractshauldccmtalnconspicucwactmolwedgmentofwhereandbywhomthepsparwaspresented.WriteLibrarian,SPE,PO.Sox833838,Richardson,TX7S083-3836,U.S.A.,fax01-972-952-9436.
AbstractNew
steelbodyPDCbittechnologyisshowntoenhancedrillingperformanceinarangeofapplicationspreviouslylimitedtomatrixbodybits.Specificaspectsofthetechnologyare&taile&includingvariousprovendesigmfeatures,anduniquemanufacturingandmaterialstreatment.Inaddition.thepaperaddressestheimpactofincreasingenergyavailableatthebitfacethroughutilizationofanewhydraulicjettechnologyincombinationwiththeadvancedfeaturesofsteelbodyPDCbits.Casehistoriesareincludedtodescribetheapplicationrangeofthenewsteelbodybits,intermsofMhdrillingperformanceandeconomicimpact.
IntroductionA
newseriesofsteelbodybits,whichcombinesprovendesignenhancementsofmatrixbodybitsandacompletelyredesignedhydraulicsconfiguration.hasdemonstratedenhanceddrillingperformanceinarangeofapplicationspreviouslylimitedtomatrixbodybits.Meadywidelydiscussedintheliterature.anumberofPDCbitdesignfeatureshavebeenintroducedinthepast,whichhaveresultedinimproveddrillingperformanceofmatrixbodyPDCbitsindirectionalapplications.(’)Limitationstofiutherimprovementshavebeenafunctionofbitdesignconstraintsimposedbymatrixmaterialscienceandmanufacturingissues.Withdevelopmentofauniquemanufacturingprocessforsteelbodybits,thesedesignfeatureswereabletobeincorporatedintothenewbits.andproducedsimilardrillingperformanceimprovementsinspecificapplicationsincludinghighshalecontentformationsdrilledwithwater-basedmuds.(2)Extensivelaboratorytestingincombinationwithanindustry-sponsoredstudyofunderbalanceddrillingusingwater-baseddrillingfluids,servedtoidenti~severaladditionalareasforfurtherimprovementofsteelbodybitperformance,Specifically,ananti-balling
coatingandredesigned
hydraulicssystemwerefoundtoresultina“stepimprovement”insteelbodybitperformance.Now.withmorethan100steelbodybitrunsdocumentedworldwide,theapplicationrangefortheadvancedbitdesignshasbeenfurtherdefine4andlimitationshavebeenidentified.
AdvancedDesignFeatures
Thefollowingdesignconsiderationsweredeemedcriticaltomaintainingtheperformanceadvantagesdemonstratedinlaboratorytesting:
q
Ahighnormalizedopenfacevolume,whichhadbeen&terminedtoimprovepenetrationrate;
q
Anti-balling(AB)coatingwhichsignificantlyreducedbitballingunderMlscalelaboratorydrillingconditions;.ShortgagelengJh,whichimprovedstabilityandsteerability;
q
Cuttersize,typeandnumker,withaheavier-set,largePDCcutterstyleseleetedbasedonanticipateddrillingconditions,ThesteelbodybitsaremanufacturedwithfeaturesthatenhancedirectionalperformancewithoutcompromisingROP.Suchfeaturesincludeimpactarrestors,variedcuttersizesandbackrakes,spiraledbladesandextremelyshortprofilesthatarejusthalfthelengthofastandardsteelbodybit.Inaddition,thesteelbodybitsareforce-balancedinaproprietaryprocessthatpositionscutterstodramaticallyreducedownholevibrationsthatcancausewerecutterdamage.Furthermore,thenewsteelbodybitsincorporatespiral,asymmetricbladelayoutswhichdisrupttheharmoniceffeetsthatleadtotheonsetofbitwhirl,aswellastracking733
 
2SMITH,PERRIN,AL-HABSI,MODY,DELWICHE,AKINSPE4256
cutterlayoutswhichdrillascallopedorridgedbottomholepatternthathasprovenmorewhirl-resistantthanthepatternsgeneratedbyconventionalPDCcutterlayouts.
Anti-BallingTreatment
ImprovedPDCbitperformanceinwater-basedmudsresultswhenbitsaretreatedduringmanufacturewithananti-balling“eating.’’TheABcoatingprocessisshowntoreducePDCbitballingandimprovepenetrationratesinsoftshaleformationsdrilledwithwater-basedmudsbyimpartingapermanentelectro-negativechargetothebit.Because“likechargesrepel,thenegativechargeofthebitrepelsnegativeionsofshale,makingthemlesslikelytoadheretothebit,thuspreventingballingduringdrilling.ThenitridingprocessusedtoapplytheABcoatingcausesthesteel,whichoriginallyiselectricallypxitiverelativetothemu~tobecomenegative.Thiscausestheionstoberepelledfromthebitsurface,generatingalubricatinglayerofwaterandcreatingananti-ballingeffect.Basedonthisresearch,anewmethodwasdevelopedtoapplyasmallnegativevoltagetothebitwhichcauseswatermoleculestomigratetothechargedsurface,providingthelubricatingfilmthatpreventsmudadherence.Firsttestedduringanindustry-sponsoredwater-baseddrillingstudy,andtheninoperator-sponsoredfieldtests,theAB-coatedsteelbodybitsprovedtoachievesigtMcantimprovementsinpenetrationrates.Whenruninthesimulatorusingasilicatemudsystem,thecoatedbitsincreasedROPtomorethan180ft/hr.Infurtherlabtests,thesteelbodybitdesignsincreasedROPfromlessthan10fVhrtomorethan100Whrpenetrationratesthatexceedthosetypicalinanoil-basedmudsystem.Theseperformanceresultshavesincebeeneorrotiratedbydocumentedfieldresults.
Re-DesignedHydraulics
“Fluted”nozzlescurrentlyusedinthenewsteelbodydrillbitsofferhydraulicfeatureswhichovercomethetypicalcausesofbitfailureandperformancelimitation.TheasymmetricVortexxnozzle&signusedinthenewsteelbodybitscreatesauniqueflowpatternwhichessentiallyincreasesturbulenceattherockkutterinterface,resultinginimprovedbitperformance.Specitlcally,sharplyincreasedfluidentrainmentintotheprirparyexitflowdomainisduetodifferentialfluidexitvelocitiesatthenozzleorifice.Theincreasedentrainmentdrivesfkomfourtoeighttimesmorere-circulatedcoolingfluidacrossthebladesandcuttersofthebit.Inactualfieldapplicatio~thishastranslatedintolongercutterlifeandmuchimproveddullgradecondition.Associatedwiththisincreaseinentrainedfluidisadramaticincreaseinthelocalized
turbulemattherockcutter
interface,andlocalizedreductioninhydrostaticpressurebearingonthereekface.Thispeeuliarphenomenahasbeendiscussedina
numberofpriorpublications.(4-5)naddition,
turbulenceisincreasedatleasthvofold.Anadditionalfeatureofthe“fluted”nozzleisthatoneachievesincreasedrealHSIatthebitwithouteitherincreasingflowrateordecreasingcrosssectionalareaoftheexitorifke.This
benefitoftheflutednozzleprovidesa
significantadvantagewhengreater-than-normally-possibleHSIisdesiredandwhenincreasedHSIisknowntobeorconsideredadvantageous.Thecoefficientextractionmeth@describedintheliterature,andresultantdataindicatearangeofincreasedHSIfromeightypereenttowelloveronehundredpercent,dependinguponthesizeoftheflutednozzleused.(s)Briefly,thearticledescribesthedifferentialin“HSIwhenusingthenewnozzles,andexplainshowandwhya
cwfflcientof
2-2.5shouldbeappliedwhencalculatingtheadjustedHSI.TheactualvaluetouseasacomparisonwhencalculatingstandardHSIisasfollows:StandardcircularnozzleHSI=0.98XcalculatedHSIbystandardmethod(The0.98correctioncoefficientisexactandrepresentstheactualHSIwhencalculatingforastandardnozzle.)Then:multiplythecorrectedcalculationby2.5togetVortexxNozzleHSIvalue.
Example;If
HSIcalculationis2,anadjustedvalueof2X2.5or5isthecorrectedVortexxNozzleHSIvalue.ThisexplainswhyVortexxNozzlesaresoeffectiveinthoseformationsthatareespeciallyHSI-sensitive:Theamountofener~availableatthebitfaceeanbeincreasedwithoutincreasingflowvolumesordecreasingtotalcrosssectionalarea
ofthe
nozzles.PertlormanceincreasesinROParethemostobviousconsequence;however,longerbitlifeandlowercostperfootresultinallbitsusingthistechnology.734
 
SPE43256APPLICATIONSANDLIMITATIONSOFADVANCEDSTEELBODYPDCBITTECHNOLOGY3
SummaryofGlobalApplicationsTomaximizethe
benefitsofthenewtechnology,steelbodybitsareconsideredinthecontextofa“totalsystemsapproachtodrillingoperations.ApplicationofthebitstakesintoaccountthesynergiesofwelldesignandBEL&fluidproperties,drillingequipment,andrigcapacities.Limitationshavebeentheresultoferosionissues.Bothinternalandgaugeerosionofsteelbodybitshaslongbeenaprobleminapplicationsthatdemandabrasivefluidsandenhaneedhydraulics.Todate,withengineeredapplicationofthenewsteelbodybitsonlylimitederosionproblemshavebeendocumented.Theseissueswillbeinvestigatedfurther.Withmorethanadozenfield-recordrunstodate,thesteelbodybitsareinitiallyrecommendedindrillingapplicationswithmorethan40%shalecontent,andgenerallyareruninthelargerdiameter,top-andintermediate-holeenvironments.Indirectionalwells,swellingshales,andavarietyofapplicationsrequiringuseofwater-basedmudsteelbodyPDCbitperformancehasproducedsignitlcantsavingsforoperatorsthroughimproveddrillingperformance.Followingthissummaryofglobalapplications,specitlccasehistoriesofseveralsteelbodybitapplicationsaredetailedinthesection,“FieldPerformanceResults.AJ%ca.ThenewsteelbodyPDCbitshaveachievedoutstandingresultsthroughdiftlcult,interbeddedformationsinapplicationsinAngola,EgyptandTheCongo.(Seecasehistoryinfollowingsection).
Alaska.Inthe8-1/2
holesectionofaKuparukFieldapplication,anS424drilled3974feetat160ft/hr.WhenpulledatTD,10,000fldepth,itwasgradedre-runnable.
Australia.The
steelbodybitshavebeenusedwithsuccessindirectionalapplicationsthroughlongintervalsofmostlylimestonewithvaryingmarlcontent,wheredolomitestringersareencounteredbutunpredictable.OneS323drilled119lmat37.2m/hrundercontrolleddrillin~tosuccessfidlymaintainholeangleat35°.Itwasre-runnable,G@_
ofMexico.
InitialapplicationofthenewsteelbodybitdesignsincludeddirectionalapplicationsusingwaterbasedmudintheGulfofMexico,wherethenewdesignsoutpetiormedcomparablematrixbodybits.Inonewell,an8-1/2four-bladedsteelbodybitdrilled1465feetin102hours,toachieveaweightedaverageROPof14.4Whr.TheS232,with2813mmPDCcutlersandfourstandardnozzles,wasruntwice;drilling1154feetat15.8tVhrinthefirstrun,and311feetinasecondrun.Thebitwaspulled“greenandnobitballingproblemswereencounteredSpecificpetiormancedetailsareincludedinTable1.Norfh
Sea.
SolidperformanceresultsaredocumentedforstealbodybitapplicationsinNorway,HollandandAberdeen,where12-1/4and16topholeseetionsofdirectionalwellshaveproventobeanidealapplication.Inonebuild-and-dropwellprofile,a16S223drilled6740feetat87ft/hrthroughshalesandclay.Thebitwasrunona9-5/8motor,successfidlycompletingalldirectionalobjectivesandsettingafieldrunrecord.
SouthAmerica.
OffshoreArgentina,FSbitshaveperformedwellin8-1/2”sectionsthroughsandstone,shale,marlandconsolidatedsandstones.ThebitsalsohavefoundwideapplicationinVenezuela,asdetailedintheeasehistoriesinthefollowingsection.
MiddleEast.One
oftheprimeapplicationsidentifiedforthenewsteelbodyPDCbitsisthe12-1/4holesectionofdirectionalwellsthroughinterbeddedformationsinAbuDhabiandYemenfields.Inbothdirectionalandstraight-holeapplications,usingbothtopdriveandrotary,thesteelbodybitsachievedpmetrationrateandfbotagethatexdeededpreviousperformancebyallotherbits.(Figure4)ThenewlineofsteelbodybitscurrentlyhasachimedthemostrecordsofanytypeofbitruninAbuDhabi,includingrecordsforROP,mostfmtagein24hours,fastestinterval,mostfootageandmostrecords.Inoneprojectwhere50wellsareplannedtobedrilledusingfourrigs,applicationofsteelbodybitsthusfarhasmorethandoubledpenetrationratesfrom37ft/hrtomorethan75fVhr.Alreadyinthecourseofthisproject,a12-1/4S323hasestablishedtworecordpefiormancesforthefieldincreasingROPby32’%overtheprevioussixlxstwellsdrilledwithaPDCbitonatopdriveunit;anddrillingrecordfootagefora24-hourperiod.Runonaslow-s-high-torquemotor,theS323drilledanintervalof3105feetofinterbeddedformationsatatotalaverageROPof76.7fVhr.ThisexceedsWnetrationratesofthepr~ioussixbestruns,whichrangedfrom70to44.6ft/hrforacumulativeaverageof57.2tVhr.Inaddition,thesteelbodybit,usedtodrilloutcement,shoeandfloatcollar,maintainedanaverageROPof84.7tVhrwhiledrillingthrough2032feetofthetotalfootageina24-hourperiod.WhenpulledatTDat8795ft,thebitwasgraded3%wornandwasre-runnable.Thesamebitthenwasre-runanddrilledanother2640feettowithinone-tenthofafootofanewrecordforROPinthefield
735

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